This post is also available in: हिन्दी (Hindi) العربية (Arabic)

Many people believe that Maths is just the use of complicated formulae and calculations which is never applied in real life. Contrary to this popular belief Maths is the universal language that is applied in almost every aspect of life. From playing games to playing music, math is vital to helping us fine-tune their creativity and turn their dreams into reality. You don’t have to look very hard to realize that Maths is around us all the time and impacts our lives on a daily basis.

## Super Interesting Examples of Maths in Real-World

Here are awesome examples of how mathematics applies to the real world.

### 1. Maths Helps You Build Things

Every building you spend time in – schools, libraries, houses, apartment complexes, movie theaters, and even your favorite ice cream shop – is the product of mathematical principles applied to design and construction.

Before construction workers can build a habitable structure, an architect has to design it. Geometry, algebra, and trigonometry all play a crucial role in architectural design. Architects apply these math forms to plan their blueprints or initial sketch designs. They also calculate the probability of issues the construction team could run into as they bring the design vision to life in three dimensions.

For more than two thousand years, architects have used this formula to design proportions in buildings that look pleasing to the human eye and feel balanced. It is also known as the Golden Ratio because it manifests literally everywhere.

The Pythagorean theorem, formulated in the 6th century B.C., has also come into play for centuries to calculate the size and shape of a structure. This theorem enables builders to accurately measure right angles. It states that in a triangle the square of the hypotenuse (the long side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.

Construction workers add, subtract, divide, multiply, and work with fractions. They measure the area, volume, length, and width. How much steel do they need for an office building? How much weight in books and furniture will the library floors need to bear? Even building a small single-family home calls for careful calculations of square footage, wall angles, roofs, and room sizes. How many square yards of carpet? How much water do you need to fill up a swimming pool?

### 2. Maths Helps You Keeping Fit

Although maintaining fitness is not commonly thought of as a quantitative activity, but maths is incorporated in all areas of exercise. Maths give individuals a tangible way of recording their success and growth in fitness. Math can motivate individuals to stay consistent with their exercise routines.

Here are some of the commonly used terms in the fitness world:

**BMI (Body Mass Index):**Body Mass Index is a simple calculation using a person’s height and weight. The formula is BMI = kg/m^{2}where kg is a person’s weight in kilograms and m2 is their height in meters squared.- A BMI of 25.0 or more is overweight, while the healthy range is 18.5 to 24.9. BMI applies to most adults 18-65 years. BMI = (Weight in kg)/(Height in meters).
**Heart Rate Reserve (HRR):**Heart rate reserve describes the difference between a measured heart rate or the predicted maximum heart rate and the resting heart rate in a person. It indicates the heart rate reserve cardiovascular fitness of a person. The formula used to calculate the heart rate reserve is HRR = HRmax − HRrest. As the heart rate reserve increases the HRrest has to drop. This is a beneficial parameter that is calculated by athletes to increase their performance.**Metabolic Equivalents (METs):**One metabolic equivalent (MET) is defined as the amount of oxygen consumed while sitting at rest and is equal to 3.5 ml O_{2}per kg body weight x min. The MET concept represents a simple, practical, and easily understood the procedure for expressing the energy cost of physical activities as a multiple of the resting metabolic rate. The energy cost of an activity can be determined by dividing the relative oxygen cost of the activity (ml O_{2}/kg/min) × 3.5.**Maximal Heart Rate (MHR):**The maximum heart rate is the highest heart rate achieved during maximal exercise. One simple method to calculate your predicted maximum heart rate uses this formula: 220 – your age = predicted maximum heart rate. For example, a 40-year-old’s predicted maximum heart rate is 180 beats/minute.**Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO**Vo_{2}max):_{2}max is a measure of the maximum amount of oxygen your body can utilize during exercise. It’s also called peak oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen uptake, or maximal aerobic capacity. Tests that measure Vo2 max are considered the gold standard for measuring cardiovascular fitness. The VO_{2}formula for absolute VO_{2}is VO_{2}(mL/min) = (HR x SV) × a-vO_{2}. “HR” stands for heart rate in beats/min and “SV” for stroke volume, or the amount of blood the heart pumps in each beat. The phrase “a-vO_{2}” is the difference between the amount of oxygen that goes into your muscles and the amount that comes out of them. As an example, if your exercising HR is 150 beats per minute, your SV is 100 milliliters per beat, and your a-vO2 equals 0.14, then your total VO2 would be 2,100 milliliters O2 per minute.

Apart from the above-mentioned formulae, many other concepts such as converting %age to decimal and vice-versa., rounding numbers, converting fractions to decimals and vice-versa, and many more are used frequently.

### 3. Maths in Interior Designing

A lot of mathematical concepts, calculations, budgets, estimations, targets, etc., are to be followed to excel in this field. Interior designers plan the interiors based on area and volume calculations to calculate and estimate the proper layout of any room or building. Such concepts form an important part of maths.

Fibonacci references can be seen in design, right from the most obvious design element of the spiral staircase, to the unassuming chaise longue. Even this hybrid of a couch and chair with a curved body is a derivative of the F sequence.

Here are some of the math principles used in interior designing.

**Rational Division of Space:**Rational and optimum use of space is what differentiates a good design from a bad one. The rule of three says that in a perfectly proportioned space, the larger of two items would be almost two-thirds more than the smaller one. Talking about the interiors of, say, a house, if we divide a space into two sections, the larger one occupies two-thirds of the space and can house the main furniture while the remaining third would account for a secondary function as a casual seating zone or storage. This is applicable for furniture items too- a sofa that is approximately 2:3 the length of the seating area and a centre table that is nearly 2/3rd the sofa length.**The 60-30-10 Rule:**This rule can be applied to determine the colour palette of a space. It involves the use of three colours-the dominant colours covering around 60% of the space, mostly used in areas like walls and flooring, a secondary colour that takes 30% of the space and is used for furniture, and ultimately an accent color occupying 10% and is used in smaller décor items. This concept can also be extended to the usage of three textures, three fabrics, three types of lighting, etc. in the same 60-30-10 ratio to create balanced and visually pleasing interiors. The latest research has also found a connection of colours with the Fibonacci sequence. Those separated by a ratio of 1:1.61 on the light spectrum are found to be aesthetically pleasing together.**The Rule of Thirds:**The rule of thirds, commonly used in photography, is another mathematical concept that may be applied to create an aesthetic design. It helps to place elements in a way that controls where a viewer’s eyes will travel. If we imagine a grid with two lines dividing it into equal thirds horizontally and vertically, making nine equal-sized squares, the middle of the center square would be the focal point. Here, a single large artwork may be placed and compositional elements may be placed along the grid lines or their intersections. Placing wall elements using this rule creates a more dynamic design that keeps the observer’s focus riveted while adding depth and visual interest to a space.**Odd vs. Even:**Although symmetry plays a big role in the design, too much of it imparts monotony and staleness. Most would agree that an odd number of items looks more natural and creates a hierarchy as compared to an even-numbered grouping. Odd numbers show progression and are dynamic – one needs to however balance the symmetry and asymmetry of a space.

All these ‘rules’ or principles are relevant for one reason only, and that is to create something dazzling, unique, pleasing, and orderly all at the same time. Whether we use math to incorporate these qualities or an inherent sense of design based on the Fibonacci sequence of spacing, sizing, and proportions, should be an individualistic choice.

### 4. Maths in Fashion

The fashion industry is not just about clothing, shopping, and models; it has a lot of math incorporated into the day-to-day operations. Fashion is a popular style or practice, especially in clothing, footwear, accessories, makeup, body, or furniture. Fashion is a distinctive and often constant trend in the style in which a person dresses. It is the prevailing style in behavior and the newest creations of textile designers. Fashion designers totally depend on math for creating patterns, shapes, trims, design details and in fact, every aspect of the apparel design created.

Math is also used when creating trim pages for the factory. Designers use trim pages to tell factories the number of trims needed for each garment. Any errors in arithmetic can result in huge cost overruns. Designers need a particularly good sense and understanding of geometry to successfully create three-dimensional patterns. They also need to be able to add fractions in their heads easily since most patterns are measured out in 1/8-inch increments. Being able to manipulate calculations regarding the area is also important when it comes to designing how patterns should be laid out on the fabric.

These are some of the areas where maths is used in the fashion industry.

**Measurements:**Measurements are necessary in order to create clothing. They are vital to making sure the clothes will fit models showing the clothing. Also, it is important that the measurements are tailored correctly for the customers.**Proportions:**Some outfits are cut in a specific way and designed for a particular type of body. Certain models are chosen to wear particular items based upon their proportions compared to the cut of the clothing. The measurements of the model and the clothing need to coincide, which is where using math come in.**Return on Investment:**When designers buy the materials to create the clothes, they need to make sure that their return is substantial enough to cover all the costs of the initial investment. Math plays an important role in calculating the profit.**Inventory:**Stores that sell the clothing use math to decide how many pieces of clothing they want to sell in each store. So as to not have a backlog of inventory, they compare the number of pieces sold and the amount that is in stock to what was initially ordered.**Cost of Item:**Designers need to decide the price of their clothing. In addition, the stores use math to decide how much to charge for the clothing and how and when to discount it.**Expenses:**Math is used to calculate the amount needed to spend for fabric, hangers, thread, and various other items needed in the fashion industry. In addition, calculations also are made to determine production costs to make the clothing.

### 5. Maths in Cooking

Maths is in every kitchen, on every recipe card, and at each holiday gathering. The mathematics of cooking often goes unnoticed, but in reality, there is a large number of math skills involved in cooking and baking. Mensuration plays an important role in cooking.

These are some of the areas where maths is used while preparing delicious meals.

**Converting Temperature:**Sometimes, a recipe might provide cooking temperatures in Celsius, but the dial on your range displays Fahrenheit and vice versa. If you know the formula to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit you can easily figure out what to set your dial to. The formula is F = ((9 ÷ 5) × C) + 32. For example, if the Celsius temperature is 200, you convert it to Fahrenheit by working out ((9 ÷ 5) × 200) + 32, i.e. 360 + 32, which is 392 degrees Fahrenheit. To convert a temperature of 392 degrees Fahrenheit to Celsius, the calculation is (392 – 32) ÷ (9 ÷ 5).**Changing Quantities:**If you want to make more than one batch, you need bigger quantities of every ingredient. Multiply each ingredient by the number of batches. For example, if a recipe provides an ingredient list for six cookies but you want to make 12 cookies, you need to multiply all ingredients by two to make your larger batch. That may involve multiplying fractions, for example, if the recipe calls for 2/3 cup of milk, and you need to double it, the formula is 2 × 2/3 = 4/3 = 1 and 1/3. Knowledge of fractions is also useful if you want to make a smaller batch than the recipe. For example, if the recipe provides an ingredient list for 24 cookies, but you only want to make six cookies. In this case, you need to quarter each ingredient. So if the recipe requires two teaspoons of baking powder, you only need 1/2 a teaspoon because 2 ÷ 4 = 1/2.**Weight and Cooking Time:**You often have to work out how long to cook something based on its weight, such as for dinner for a birthday party. Now, you may need to refrigerate something.. If a time in the refrigerator for 24 hours per 5 pounds, how long do you need for a 10-pound? To work this out, you take the weight of an item and multiply it by the time value you already have, i.e. 10 × 24. Next, you divide this figure (240) by 5 pounds. The answer (48) is the number of hours you have to thaw a 10-pound item. To work out how long you have to cook something, the formula is cooking time in minutes = 15 + ((mass in grams ÷ 500) × 25). For example, if you have an item that weighs 2.8 kg, the calculation is 15 + ((2800 ÷ 500) × 25). The answer is 155 minutes, meaning you have to cook the item for 2 hours and 35 minutes.

### 6. Maths in Sports

Maths improves the cognitive and decision-making skills of a person. Such skills are very important for a sportsperson because by this he can take the right decisions for his team. If a person lacks such abilities, he won’t be able to make correct estimations. So, maths also forms an important part of the sports field.

In recent years, with the development of technology, maths has played a more and more important role in sport. As the technology to measure and improve performance gains momentum, even sport cannot escape maths. From amateur athletic training to high-level sporting prowess, similar technology is used to give athletes feedback.

Some of the most frequently used concepts of maths in sports are probability, mathematical operations and algorithms, logical reasoning, and game theory.

Scheduling the matches in a tournament involves a lot of maths. In fact, there are many types of tournaments and graph theory helps schedule these tournaments.

**Round robin tournament**where each team (player) plays exactly k games against every other team (player). Very often the value of*k*= 1 is so each team or player gets to play exactly one game (match) against every other team or player.**Elimination tournament**where the tournament progresses*n*rounds where in each round some players are eliminated and the surviving players are paired in future rounds, where again losers are eliminated. There are variants of this, especially double-elimination tournaments. In this idea losers in the various rounds of elimination play against each other and, thus, a later series of victories can lead to a final victory.**King of the hill**where a player stays on the court for as long as he/she can beat the next challenger.

### 7. Maths in Driving

When driving, math is being utilized both in a general understanding and in actual use. You use math to make calculations and adjustments as you drive. You need to understand math skills to know how your vehicle is operating and how the environment is changing around you as you drive.

The most visual aspect of maths while driving is speed. You’re almost unconsciously adding and subtracting as you adjust your speed to the posted speed limits. A mathematical understanding of speed rates and distances is important to know as well. As you drive you to adjust your speed not only for the posted limits but for warnings of obstacles and other vehicles ahead. If you see a sign that there is a sharp curve 2 miles ahead, you may not slow down very quickly. If the same sign says 1/4 mile ahead, you most likely will adjust speed immediately.

Another example of maths would be with fuel. Understanding the concept of fuel mileage, volumes, distances, and even the financial part of fuel purchasing is important. You always keep an eye on your fuel mileage so that you can get the most distance you spend on the road.

### 8. Maths Helps in Building Computer Applications

As a vast and complicated field, there are various types of math in computer science. Computer science examines the principles and use of computers in processing information, designing hardware and software, and using applications. Possessing a strong foundational knowledge of mathematics is vital to gaining an understanding of how computers work. maths is a fundamental tool in computing.

The major math topics used in the development of computer applications are:

**Binary Maths:**Binary math is the heart of computer operation and among the most essential types of math used in computer science. Binary is used to symbolize every number within the computer. The binary number system is an alternative to the decimal system. Using this system simplifies computer design. Reading and simple mathematical operations are vital for hardware low-level programming. Knowing how to work with a hexadecimal number system is necessary for various programming functions, including setting the color of an item. Standard arithmetic is utilized in numerous functions of computer programming. In nearly every written program, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are used.**Algebra:**Algebra covers various concepts, including linear equations, operations, factoring, exponents, polynomials, quadratic equations, rational expressions, radicals, ratios, proportions, and rectangular coordinates. It focuses on algebraic relationships, graphs, and functions and students learn to solve for one or two unknown variables in various complex equations. Students also learn how to graph algebraic functions. Algebra is used in computer science in the development of algorithms and software for working with mathematical objects. It is also used to design formulas that are used in numerical programs and for complete scientific computations.**Statistics:**Statistics is a form of math used in computer science that uses quantified models, representations, and synopses for a provided collection of experimental data or actual studies. The field studies methodologies to obtain, review, evaluate, and form conclusions from data. Some statistical measures include mean, skewness, regression analysis, variance, analysis of variance, and kurtosis. Statistics plays a fundamental part in computer science as it is used for data mining, speech recognition, vision and image analysis, data compression, traffic modeling, and even artificial intelligence. It is also used for simulations. A background in statistics is needed to understand the algorithms and statistical properties of computer science.**Calculus:**Calculus is the examination of continuous change and the rates change occurs. It handles the finding and properties of integrals and derivatives of functions. There are two types of calculus, differential calculus, and integral calculus. Differential calculus deals with the rate of change of a quantity. Integral calculus determines the quantity where the change rate is known. Calculus is used in an array of computer science areas, including creating graphs or visuals, simulations, problem-solving applications, coding in applications, creating statistic solvers, and the design and analysis of algorithms.**Discrete Maths:**Discrete math examines objects that care be represented finitely. It includes a variety of topics that can be used to answer various tangible inquiries. It involves several concepts, including logic, number theory, counting, probability, graph theory, and recurrences. Discrete math provides an important foundation for all areas of computer science. Discrete math is used in various areas including computer architecture, algorithms, computer systems, databases, functional programming, distributed systems, machine learning, operating systems, computer security, and networks. The problem-solving methods taught in discrete math are needed for composing complicated software.

### 9. Maths in Hospitals

Both doctors and nurses use math every day while providing health care for people around the world. Doctors and nurses use math when they write prescriptions or administer medication. Medical professionals use math when drawing up statistical graphs of epidemics or success rates of treatments. Math applies to X-rays and CAT scans. Numbers provide an abundance of information for medical professionals. It is reassuring for the general public to know that our doctors and nurses have been properly trained by studying mathematics and its uses for medicine.

Regularly, doctors write prescriptions to their patients for various ailments. Prescriptions indicate a specific medication and dosage amount. Most medications have guidelines for dosage amounts in milligrams (mg) per kilogram (kg). Doctors need to figure out how many milligrams of medication each patient will need, depending on their weight.

If the weight of a patient is only known in pounds, doctors need to convert that measurement to kilograms and then find the number of milligrams for the prescription. There is a very big difference between mg/kg and mg/lbs, so it is imperative that doctors understand how to accurately convert weight measurements. Doctors must also determine how long a prescription will last. For example, if a patient needs to take their medication, say one pill, three times a day. Then one month of pills is approximately 90 pills. However, most patients prefer two or three-month prescriptions for convenience and insurance purposes. Doctors must be able to do these calculations mentally with speed and accuracy.

Doctors must also consider how long the medicine will stay in the patient’s body. This will determine how often the patient needs to take their medication in order to keep a sufficient amount of the medicine in the body. For example, a patient takes a pill in the morning that has 50mg of a particular medicine. When the patient wakes up the next day, their body has washed out 40% of the medication. This means that 20mg have been washed out and only 30mg remain in the body. The patient continues to take their 50mg pill each morning. This means that on the morning of day two, the patient has the 30mg leftover from day one, as well as another 50mg from the morning of day two, which is a total of 80mg. As this continues, doctors must determine how often a patient needs to take their medication, and for how long, in order to keep enough medicine in the patient’s body to work effectively, but without overdosing.

Not only doctors but nurses and other supporting staff use math in carrying out their duties. Nurses also use ratios and proportions when administering medication. Nurses need to know how much medicine a patient needs depending on their weight. Nurses need to be able to understand the doctor’s orders. Such an order may be given as 25 mcg/kg/min. If the patient weighs 52kg, how many milligrams should the patient receive in one hour? In order to do this, nurses must convert micrograms (mcg) to milligrams (mg). If 1mcg = 0.001mg, we can find the amount (in mg) of 25mcg by setting up a proportion (1/0.001) = (25/x) .

By cross-multiplying and dividing, we see that 25mcg = 0.025mg. If the patient weighs 52kg, then the patient receives 0.025(52) = 1.3mg per minute. There are 60 minutes in an hour, so in one hour the patient should receive 1.3(60) = 78mg. Nurses use ratios and proportions daily, as well as converting important units. They have special “shortcuts” they use to do this math accurately and efficiently in a short amount of time.

### 10. Maths in Your Video Games

There are many mathematical principles behind the creation of computer games including geometry, vectors, transformations, matrices, and physics. For example, matrices are related to 3D graphics. Many games nowadays take place in a 3D virtual world. Objects and characters are created from a set of 3D points. These points are stored in a data structure as columns of coordinates relative to a convenient local coordinate system. These objects are manipulated (moved, rotated, scaled) to their desired shape and orientation then positioned in the world by a ‘change of coordinates’ to the world coordinate system.

Not only is there fundamental mathematics behind the creation of the games but also for playing them. For example, one of the main mathematical skills required to succeed in playing most games is problem-solving. In most popular and common games such as, FIFA, Call of Duty, and Minecraft there are usually scenarios that require the player to overcome or solve. For example, in FIFA players need to think strategically to work out the best way to tackle other players to get ball possession and the best angle for scoring goals which is nothing but another mathematical concept. The creators of these games need to look at the aspect of probability, to ensure players do not encounter the same obstacles all the time or so that they need to defeat these obstacles in different ways.

### 11. Maths Helps in Weather Forecasting

Maths helps meteorologists understand how the atmosphere works. Using maths to predict the future of the atmosphere is called Numerical Weather Prediction. The weather models often make mistakes, so it’s important for a meteorologist to understand how the computers work so they can create an accurate forecast.

Mathematics is the means by which scientists seek to describe physical systems. Meteorology is a profession that has become deeply grounded in mathematics. The equations describing atmospheric processes were developed long before the invention of computers. With the development of computers, it became possible to provide numerical “solutions” to those equations or, more precisely, solutions to the approximate versions of those equations suitable for numerical computations. Meteorology is a branch of physics and so mathematics is essential for a deep physical understanding of the atmosphere and the weather it produces. Numerical weather prediction based on those approximate equations is essential to modern weather forecasting.

Several areas of maths play fundamental roles in NWP, including mathematical models and their associated numerical algorithms, computational nonlinear optimization in very high dimensions, huge datasets manipulation, and parallel computation.

Operational weather and climate models are based on Navier-Stokes equations coupled with various interactive earth components such as an ocean, land terrain, and water cycles. Many models use a latitude-longitude spherical grid. Its logically rectangular structure, orthogonality, and symmetry properties make it relatively straightforward to obtain various desirable, accuracy-related, properties.

### 12. Maths in Music and Dance

**Dance:** To some, Mathematics is generally seen as a bunch of numbers and formulas, which is considered to be near polar opposites of dancing. Yet, when we look closely, similarities and connections reveal themselves. There are thousands of cultures spread around the globe and each has its own dances with various kinds of moves. As we looked closely into these dances, we can see that they are made of rhythm, shapes, and patterns. These can be linked to mathematical concepts. Implementing mathematics in ‘real life’ such as in dancing will certainly help to erase the stigma of the subject being dry and inaccessible.

Mathematical concepts such as Geometry are widely used in dancing. This concept can be seen in the positioning of a dancer’s body in relation to themselves and their surroundings. Within the dancer’s body, she or he can create shapes, angles, and lines that contribute to the effect of the dance. Concerning shapes and angles, dancers need to focus on the angles they make with their bodies to form the correct shapes. Meanwhile, talking about the concept of the line through the dance, dancers often have to think about staying parallel to other dancers to preserve formations. They need to keep the same distance between each other no matter how they move.

Furthermore, Geometry is also used to unify between one and another dancer. Without Geometry, dancers would not be able to be synchronized and create shapes. Besides Geometry, everything in dancing has to do with patterns. Dancers memorize patterns in the steps in their dances. The rhythm in music usually consists of patterns in the form of beats. This pattern is generally synchronized with the dancers’ movement.

**Music:** Numbers tell us a lot of information about a piece of music. Music is divided into sections called measures and each measure has equal amounts of beats. These are the same as mathematical divisions of time. Each piece of music has a time signature that gives rhythmic information about the piece, such as how many beats are in each measure. A time signature is like a fraction, with one number on top and one on the bottom. All of the notes and rests in music have numerical connections as well because they each have a certain amount of beats. It is important for musicians to understand the value of these fractions and notes in order the count the music correctly.

Two important concepts of maths used in music are:

**Frequency:**Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher, and mathematician realized that different sounds can be made up with different weights and vibrations. This led to the discovery that the pitch of a vibrating string, such as on a violin, guitar, or piano, can be controlled by its length. The shorter the string, the higher the pitch, and the longer the string the lower the pitch.**Pattern:**Probably the closest connection between music and math is that they both use patterns. Music has repeating choruses and sections of songs and math patterns are used to explain and predict the unknown. Mathematics is the study of patterns, and you can study everything in music from different mathematical perspectives, including geometry, number theory, trigonometry, differential calculus, and signal processing. Research has even shown that certain pieces of music end up being more popular due to their mathematical structure.

### 13. Maths in Manufacturing Industry

The part of maths called ‘Operations Research’ is an important concept which is being followed at every manufacturing unit. This concept of maths gives the manufacturer a simple idea of performing the number of tasks under the manufacturing unit. Besides Operations Research other important concepts of maths used in the manufacturing industry are Statistics, Algebra, and Ratio & Proportions.

Modern manufacturing has changed drastically in modern times due to the explosion in the knowledge economy. Fast and inexpensive computing, office products, the development and utilization of large databases, have necessitated sophisticated methods to meet new demands.

Industrial mathematics is the enabling factor in realizing and implementing these methods. The creation of mathematical and statistical modeling and the development of numerical methods and/or algorithms for computers to obtain solutions for problems in the industry has come to be called Industrial Mathematical Science or, simply, Industrial Mathematics.

The areas in the industry where maths is used predominantly are signal processing, computer graphics, risk management, system reliability, product testing and verification, production line optimization, and marketing research.

Following are the four major areas where Operations Research is used in the manufacturing industry:

**Better Control:**The management of large organizations recognizes that it is a difficult and costly affair to provide continuous executive supervision to every routine work. An O.R. approach may provide the executive with an analytical and quantitative basis to identify the problem area. The most frequently adopted applications in this category deal with production scheduling and inventory replenishment. With OR, organizations are greatly relieved from the burden of supervision of all the routine and mundane tasks. The problem areas are identified analytically and quantitatively. Tasks such as scheduling and replenishment of inventories benefit immensely from OR.**Better Decisions:**O.R. models help in improved decision making and reduce the risk of making erroneous decisions. O.R.’s approach gives the executive an improved insight into how he makes his decisions. OR is used for analyzing problems of decision-making in a superior fashion. The organization can decide on factors such as the sequencing of jobs, production scheduling, and replacements. Also, the organization can take a call on whether or not to introduce new products or open new factories on the basis of a good OR plan.**Better Co-ordination:**An operations-research-oriented planning model helps in coordinating different divisions of a company. Various departments in the organization can be coordinated well with suitable OR. An operations research oriented planning model helps in coordinating different divisions of a company. It facilitates smooth functioning for the entire organization. With OR, any organization follows a systematic approach for the conduct of its business. OR essentially emphasizes the use of computers in decision-making. Hence the chances of error are minimal.**Improved Productivity:**Operations Research helps to improve the productivity of the organization. It helps to decide about the selection, location, and size of the factories, warehouses, etc. It helps in inventory control. It helps in production planning and control. It also helps in manpower planning. OR is used in expansion, modernization, installation of technology, etc. OR uses many different mathematical and statistical techniques to improve productivity. Simulation is used by many organizations to improve their productivity. That is, they try out production improvement techniques on a small scale. If these techniques are successful then they are used on a large scale. Basically, OR could be used in any situation where improvements in the productivity of the business are of paramount importance.

### 14. Maths is the Base of Other Subjects

Maths is not just an isolated subject, it has an influence on all the other subjects whether we realize it or not. Maths is present in every subject we study.

**Science and Technology:**Science and math are intimately connected, particularly in fields such as chemistry, astronomy, and physics. Students who can’t master basic arithmetic skills will struggle to read scientific charts and graphs. More complex math, such as geometry, algebra, and calculus, can help students solve chemistry problems, understand the movements of the planets and analyze scientific studies. Math is also important in practical sciences, such as engineering and computer science. Students may have to solve equations when writing computer programs and figuring out algorithms. Nursing majors may have great bedside manners. but they also need to know how to precisely calculate dosages to pass their courses.**Literature and Writing:**Literature might seem like a far cry from math, but mastering basic arithmetic can enable students to better understand poetry. The meter of poetry, the number of words to include in a line and the effect that certain rhythms have on the reader are all products of mathematical calculations. At a more mundane level, maths can help students plan reading assignments in literature classes by discerning their average reading time and estimating how long it will take them to read a particular work. The linear, logical thinking used in mathematical problems can also help students write more clearly and logically.**Social Studies:**Social studies classes, such as history, often require students to review charts and graphs that provide historical data or information on ethnic groups. In geography classes, students might need to understand how the elevation of an area affects its population or chart the extent to which different populations have different average life spans. Knowledge of basic mathematical terms and formulas makes statistical information accessible.**The Arts:**Students interested in pursuing careers in theater, music, dance, or art can benefit from basic mathematical knowledge. Musical rhythm often follows complex mathematical series, and math can help students learn the basic rhythms of dances used in ballet and theater performances. Art thrives on geometry, and students who understand basic geometric formulas can craft impressive art pieces. Photographers use math to calculate shutter speed, focal length, lighting angles, and exposure time.

In the end, we can say that Mathematics is a fundamental part of human thought and logic, and integral to attempts at understanding the world and ourselves. Mathematics provides an effective way of building mental discipline and encourages logical reasoning and mental rigour. In addition, mathematical knowledge plays a crucial role in understanding the contents of other school subjects.