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12 Best Programming Languages To Learn In 2022

Best Programming Languages To Learn in 2022

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The way we program has changed radically in the past decade. Programming languages continue to evolve in both industry and research, as systems and applications change. Today there is a wide variety of programming languages with different languages, syntax, and features. Developers can now use a language based on either the client’s preference or their own.

The most popular languages in use today – Python, Java, and Javascript – are all drastically different from their counterparts ten years ago. Thankfully, we live in an age where there are tons of free courses and material for learning, so with a little searching and some time and discipline, you can learn whatever programming language you need. Here’s a list of the best programming languages to learn in 2022.

Programming Languages During Last Decade

In the last 10 years, languages have become more Internet focused and feature many mixed paradigms and features. The goal of programming languages now is to make programming easier and quicker to use for programmers. This is to increase turn-around times and ROI of ideas. In this time span, C#, F#, Groovy, Scala, Factor, Clojure, and Go came out and brought with them rich multi-paradigm feature sets built on past languages and virtual machines. An example would be C#, it being an imperative, functional, and logical programming language based on how you use it.

Best Coding Languages for Kids

For the most part, not much has changed for the big languages like Java or C. But C++ is on a slow decline, along with Perl and Visual Basic. While programming languages that are used for today’s leading technologies are on a rise, like Objective-C because of the iPhone, and Python. These trends fluctuate a lot with every revision of the language and as new libraries and technologies are implemented in these languages. Java seems to reign supreme, and will most likely hold this title for many more years, until there is a platform that can match it in power. The closest are C#, C, and Python, and as these languages grow and become more widespread, they will begin to eat away at Java’s share.

What’s The Cause Of Change?

So why has this focus changed? Well while C and C++ can probably handle the loads and features these sites require, the time and difficulty to write the software to do the same thing and scale the same way would be much much larger. Writing the same program in C and C++ would probably take thousands of more lines of code and implementations of coding functions that are already built into other languages. Along with this, with increasing hardware power and resilience, our computers can handle these high level languages with minimal difference from lower level languages. A great example is TinyP2P. It is a P2P program written in 15 lines of Python. Something that would normally take 100s of lines in other programming languages was achieved in 15. This is one of the major reasons, ease of programming.

The final aspect is money. It is much cheaper to pay 2-3 programmers to do the work in a month, than 6+ programmers to do the work in 6 months. There is also hardware and other things that allow for cheaper implementations because of the greater scalability that these languages have. Allows you to run more on less.

Now to turn back a bit, in the early days of programming, most innovation was spurred by just wanting to see what they could do with computers. Programming languages weren’t well defined, and constantly changing. Programmers weren’t programming for consumers per say, but to push the boundaries of computing. As most programmers were also engineers, they had a more intimated knowledge of the workings of the technology, and were able to manipulate them with greater ease on the hardware level. It also allowed them to use rough, very low level languages without too much effort, as they understood what they were doing.

Best Programming Languages To Learn In 2022

As technology is growing and changing rapidly, new programming languages are also seeing the light of day and replacing the old ones. The competition is increasing at a high-speed day by day. To stay in the race for programming, developers need to stay updated with the latest trends in programming and the knowledge of top programming languages.

In this article, we will discuss the top 10 programming languages in 2022 and beyond.

1. Python

Python is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. Its high-level built in data structures, combined with dynamic typing and dynamic binding, make it very attractive for Rapid Application Development, as well as for use as a scripting or glue language to connect existing components together. Python’s simple, easy to learn syntax emphasizes readability and therefore reduces the cost of program maintenance. Python supports modules and packages, which encourages program modularity and code reuse. The Python interpreter and the extensive standard library are available in source or binary form without charge for all major platforms, and can be freely distributed.

Best Programming Languages To Learn in 2022

Often, programmers fall in love with Python because of the increased productivity it provides. Since there is no compilation step, the edit-test-debug cycle is incredibly fast. Debugging Python programs is easy: a bug or bad input will never cause a segmentation fault. Instead, when the interpreter discovers an error, it raises an exception. When the program doesn’t catch the exception, the interpreter prints a stack trace.

A source level debugger allows inspection of local and global variables, evaluation of arbitrary expressions, setting breakpoints, stepping through the code a line at a time, and so on. The debugger is written in Python itself, testifying to Python’s introspective power. On the other hand, often the quickest way to debug a program is to add a few print statements to the source: the fast edit-test-debug cycle makes this simple approach very effective.

Features of Python

Following are the key features of Python

  1. Easy Language

Python is an easy language. It is easy to read, write, learn and understand.

  • Python has a smooth learning curve. It is easy to learn.
  • Python has a simple syntax and Python code is easy to understand.
  • Since it’s easy to understand, you can easily read and understand someone else’s code.
  • Python is also easy to write because of its simple syntax.

Because it is an easy language, it is used in schools and universities to introduce students to programming. Python is for both startups and big companies.

  1. Readable

The Python language is designed to make developers’ lives easy. Reading a Python code is like reading an English sentence. This is one of the key reasons that makes Python best for beginners.

Python uses indentation instead of curly braces, unlike other programming languages. This makes the code look clean and easier to understand.

  1. Interpreted Language

Python is an interpreted language. It comes with the IDLE (Interactive Development Environment). This is an interpreter and follows the REPL structure (Read-Evaluate-Print-Loop). It executes and displays the output of one line at a time.

So it displays errors while you’re running a line and displays the entire stack trace for the error.

  1. Dynamically-Typed Language

Python is not statically-typed like Java. You don’t need to declare a data type while defining a variable. The interpreter determines this at runtime based on the types of the parts of the expression. This is easy for programmers but can create runtime errors.

Python follows duck-typing. It means, “If it looks like a duck, swims like a duck and quacks like a duck, it must be a duck.”

  1. Object Oriented

Python is object-oriented but supports both functional and object-oriented programming. Everything in Python is an object.

It has the OOP (Object-oriented programming) concepts like inheritance and polymorphism.

  1. Popular and Large Community Support

Python has one of the largest communities on StackOverflow and Meetup. If you need help, the community will answer your questions.

They also already have many answered questions about Python.

  1. Open-Source

Python is open-source and the community is always contributing to it to improve it. It is free and its source code is freely available to the public. You can download Python from the official Python Website.

  1. Large Standard Library

The standard library is large and has many packages and modules with common and important functionality. If you need something that is available in this standard library, you don’t need to write it from scratch. Because of this, you can focus on more important things.

You can also install packages from the PyPI (Python Package Index) if you want even more functionality.

  1. Platform-Independent

Python is platform-independent. If you write a program, it will run on different platforms like Windows, Mac and Linux. You don’t need to write them separately for each platform.

  1. Extensible and Embeddable

Python is extensible. You can use code from other languages like C++ in your Python code. It is also embeddable. You can embed your Python code in other languages like C++.

  1. GUI Support

You can use Python to create GUI (Graphical User Interfaces). You can use tkinter, PyQt, wxPython or Pyside for this.

Python features a huge number of GUI frameworks available for it and a variety of other cross-platform solutions. It binds to platform-specific technologies.

  1. High-Level Language

Python is a high-level language and C++ is mid-level. It is easy to understand and closer to the user. You don’t need to remember system architecture or manage the memory.

Applications of Python

Python finds application in many real world problems of today:

  1. Web Development

Python offers numerous options for web development. For instance, you have Django, Pyramid, Flask, and Bottle for developing web frameworks and even advanced content management systems like Plone and Django CMS. These web frameworks are packed with standard libraries and modules which simplify tasks like content management, database interaction, and interfacing with internet protocols like HTTP, SMTP, XML, JSON, FTP, IMAP, and POP.

Python web frameworks are known for their security, scalability, and flexibility. To add to that, Python’s Package Index comes with useful libraries like Requests, BeautifulSoup, Paramiko, Feedparser, and Twisted Python. 

  1. Game Development

As we mentioned earlier, Python comes loaded with many useful extensions (libraries) that come in handy for the development of interactive games. For instance, libraries like PySoy (a 3D game engine that supports Python 3) and PyGame are two Python-based libraries used widely for game development. Python is the foundation for popular games like Battlefield 2, Frets on Fire, World of Tanks, Disney’s Toontown Online, Vega Strike, and Civilization-IV. 

Apart from game development, game designers can also use Python for developing tools to simplify specific actions such as level design or dialog tree creation, and even use those tools to export those tasks in formats that can be used by the primary game engine. Also, Python is used as a scripting language by many game engines.

  1. Scientific and Numeric Applications

Because of its massive library base, Python has become a crucial tool in scientific and numeric computing. In fact, Python provides the skeleton for applications that deal with computation and scientific data processing. Apps like FreeCAD (3D modeling software) and Abaqus (finite element method software) are coded in Python.

Some of the most useful Python packages for scientific and numeric computation include:

  • SciPy(Scientific Numeric Library)
  • Pandas(Data Analytics Library)
  • IPython(Command Shell)
  • Numeric Python(Fundamental Numeric Package)
  • Natural Language Toolkit(Mathematical And Text Analysis)
  1. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

AI and ML models and projects are inherently different from traditional software models. When we talk about AI/ML projects, the tools and technologies used and the skills required are totally different from those used in the development of conventional software projects. AI/ML applications require a language that is stable, secure, flexible, and is equipped with tools that can handle the various unique requirements of such projects. Python has all these qualities, and hence, it has become one of the most favored languages of Data Science professionals and Python is a must have tool in data science courses.

Python’s simplicity, consistency, platform independence, great collection of resourceful libraries, and an active community make it the perfect tool for developing AI and ML applications. Some of the best Python packages for AI and ML are:

  • SciPy for advanced computing
  • Pandas for general-purpose data analysis
  • Seaborn for data-visualization
  • Keras, TensorFlow, and Scikit-Learn for ML
  • NumPy for high-performance scientific computing and data analysis

Apart from these libraries, there are also other Python-based libraries like NLTK, Coffee, PyTorch, and Accord.NET that are useful for AI and ML projects.

  1. Desktop GUI

Python not only boasts of an English-like syntax, but it also features a modular architecture and the ability to work on multiple operating systems. These aspects, combined with its rich text processing tools, make Python an excellent choice for developing desktop-based GUI applications. 

Python offers many GUI toolkits and frameworks that make desktop application development a breeze. PyQt, PyGtk, Kivy, Tkinter, WxPython, PyGUI, and PySide are some of the best Python-based GUI frameworks that allow developers to create highly functional Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs).

  1. Software Development

Python packages and applications aim to simplify the process of software development. From developing complex applications that involve scientific and numeric computing to developing desktop and web applications, Python can do it all. This is the reason why Software Developers use Python as a support language for build control, testing, and management.

For instance, SCons is designed explicitly for build control, Buildbot and Apache Gump allow for automated continuous compilation and testing, and Roundup and Trac are great for bug tracking and project management.

Python also supports data analyzation and visualization, thereby further simplifying the process of creating custom solutions minus the extra effort and time investment.

  1. Enterprise-Level/Business Applications

Enterprise-level software or business applications are strikingly different from standard applications, as the former demands features like readability, extensibility, and scalability. Essentially, business applications are designed to fit the requirements of an organization rather than the needs of individual customers.

Thus, these applications must be capable of integrating with legacy systems like existing databases and non-web apps. Since business applications are developed, keeping in mind the custom requirements to cater to the specific needs of an organization’s operating model, the entire development process becomes very complicated. 

This is where Python can make a significant difference. Python high performance, scalability, flexibility, and readability are just the features required for developing fully-functional and efficient business applications. Furthermore, Python has other tools for business application development, like:

  • Odoo, an all-in-one management software that forms a complete suite of enterprise management applications
  • Tryton, a three-tier, high-level, general-purpose application platform, is another fantastic tool for building business applications
  1. Education Programs and Training Courses

If there’s any beginner-friendly programming language, it is Python. We’ve said it many times before, and we’re repeating it – Python has an extremely straightforward syntax that’s similar to the English language. It has a short learning curve and hence, is an excellent choice for beginners. Python’s easy learning curve and simplicity are the two main reasons why it is one of the most used programming languages in educational programs, both at beginner and advanced levels. 

However, Python is not just great as an introductory language – even professional developers and coders all around the world rely heavily on Python.

  1. Language Development

Over the years, Python’s design and module architecture has been the inspiration behind the development of many new programming languages such as Boo, Swift, CoffeeScript, Cobra, and OCaml. All of these languages share numerous similarities with Python on grounds like object model, syntax, and indentation.

  1. Operating Systems

Yes, you have read correctly. Python is the secret ingredient behind many operating systems as well, most popularly of Linux distributions. Linux-based Ubuntu’s Ubiquity Installer and Fedora and RedHat Enterprise’s Anaconda Installer are coded in Python. Even Gentoo Linux leverages Python Portage (package management system). Usually, Python is combined with the C programming language to design and develop operating systems.

  1. Web Scraping Applications

Python is a nifty tool for extracting voluminous amounts of data from websites and web pages. The pulled data is generally used in different real-world processes, including job listings, price comparison, R&D, etc. 

BeautifulSoup, MechanicalSoup, Scrapy, LXML, Python Requests, Selenium, and Urllib are some of the best Python-based web scraping tools.

  1. Image Processing and Graphic Design Applications

Alongside all the uses mentioned above, Python also finds a unique use case in image processing and graphic design applications. The programming language is used globally to design and build 2D imaging software like Inkscape, GIMP, Paint Shop Pro, and Scribus. Also, Python is used in several 3D animation packages such as Blender, Houdini, 3ds Max, Maya, Cinema 4D, and Lightwave, to name a few.

2. JavaScript

JavaScript is a cross-platform, object-oriented scripting language used to make webpages interactive (e.g., having complex animations, clickable buttons, popup menus, etc.).  There are also more advanced server side versions of JavaScript such as Node.js, which allow you to add more functionality to a website than downloading files (such as real time collaboration between multiple computers). Inside a host environment (for example, a web browser), JavaScript can be connected to the objects of its environment to provide programmatic control over them.

Best Programming Languages To Learn in 2022

JavaScript contains a standard library of objects, such as Array, Date, and Math, and a core set of language elements such as operators, control structures, and statements. Core JavaScript can be extended for a variety of purposes by supplementing it with additional objects; for example:

Client-side JavaScript extends the core language by supplying objects to control a browser and its Document Object Model (DOM). For example, client-side extensions allow an application to place elements on an HTML form and respond to user events such as mouse clicks, form input, and page navigation.

Server-side JavaScript extends the core language by supplying objects relevant to running JavaScript on a server. For example, server-side extensions allow an application to communicate with a database, provide continuity of information from one invocation to another of the application, or perform file manipulations on a server.

This means that in the browser, JavaScript can change the way the webpage (DOM) looks. And, likewise, Node.js JavaScript on the server can respond to custom requests from code written in the browser.

Features of JavaScript

JavaScript is one of the most popular languages which includes numerous features when it comes to web development. It’s amongst the top programming languages as per Github and we must know the features of JavaScript properly to understand what it is capable of. 

Some of the features are lightweight, dynamic, functional and interpreted. Now we are going to discuss some important features of JavaScript are

  1. LightWeight Scripting Language

JavaScript is a lightweight scripting language because it is made for data handling at the browser only. Since it is not a general-purpose language, it has a limited set of libraries. Also as it is only meant for client-side execution and that too for web applications, hence the lightweight nature of JavaScript is a great feature.

  1. Dynamic Typing

JavaScript supports dynamic typing which means types of the variable are defined based on the stored value. For example, if you declare a variable x then you can store either a string or a Number type value or an array or an object. This is known as dynamic typing.

To understand this, in languages like Java, we explicitly mention that a particular variable will store a certain type of data, whereas in JavaScript we do not have to provide the data type while declaring a variable. In JavaScript, we just have to use var or let keyword before the variable name to declare a variable without worrying about its type.

  1. Object-Oriented Programming Support

Starting from ES6, the concept of class and OOPs has been more refined. Also, in JavaScript, two important principles with OOP in JavaScript are Object Creation patterns (Encapsulation) and Code Reuse patterns (Inheritance). Although JavaScript developers rarely use this feature, it’s there for everyone to explore.

  1. Functional Style

This implies that JavaScript uses a functional approach, even objects are created from the constructor functions and each constructor function represents a unique object-type. Also, functions in JavaScript can be used as objects and can be passed to other functions too.

  1. Platform Independent

This implies that JavaScript is platform-independent or we can say it is portable; which simply means that you can simply write the script once and run it anywhere and anytime. In general, you can write your JavaScript applications and run them on any platform or any browser without affecting the output of the Script.

  1. Prototype-Based Language

JavaScript is a prototype-based scripting Language. This means javascript uses prototypes instead of classes or inheritance. In languages like Java, we create a class and then we create objects for those classes. But in JavaScript, we define object prototype and then more objects can be created using this object prototype.

  1. Interpreted Language

JavaScript is an interpreted language which means the script written inside javascript is processed line by line. These Scripts are interpreted by a JavaScript interpreter which is a built-in component of the Web browser. But these days many JavaScript engines in browsers like the V8 engine in chrome uses just in time compilation for JavaScript code.

  1. Async Processing

JavaScript supports Promise which enables asynchronous requests wherein a request is initiated and JavaScript doesn’t have to wait for the response, which at times blocks the request processing. Also starting from ES8, Async functions are also supported in JavaScript, these functions don’t execute one by one, rather they are processed parallely which has a positive effect on the processing time, reducing it to a great extent.

  1. Client-Side Validation

This is a feature which has been available in JavaScript since forever and is still widely used because every website has a form in which users enter values, and to make sure that users enter the correct value, we must put proper validations in place, both on the client-side and on the server-side. JavaScript is used for implementing client-side validations.

  1. More Control in the Browser

JavaScript being a client-side language provides many features that help developers to divide processing between browser and server hence reducing the load on servers by having basic processing, validations, temporary data saving using cookies, etc on the browser itself.

Applications of JavaScript

JavaScript is the widely used programming language, all over the world. It has the largest open-source package repository in the world (npm). Every type of software uses JavaScript, including the server code (Node.js), productivity apps, 3D games, robots, IoT devices. JavaScript has achieved the goal, set by Java a long time ago: write once, run anywhere. There are various JavaScript uses in different segments, let’s discuss them one by one.

  1. Web Development

JavaScript is a client scripting language which is used for creating web pages. It is a standalone language developed in Netscape. It is used when a webpage is to be made dynamic and add special effects on pages like rollover, roll out and many types of graphics. It is mostly used by all websites for the purpose of validation. In addition to validations, it supports external applications like PDF documents, running widgets, supporting flash applications etc. It can also load content into a document whenever the user requires it without even reloading the entire page.

  1. Web Applications

With technology browsers and personal computers have improved to the extent that a language was required to create robust web applications. When a user explores a map in Google Maps then the user just needs to click and drag the mouse. All detailed views are visible by just a click. This is possible due to JavaScript. It interacts with the browser without sending messages to and fro to the servers. JavaScript uses Application Programming Interfaces(APIs) that provide extra powers to the code.

  1. Presentations

JavaScript also provides the facility of creating presentations as a website. JavaScript provides RevealJS and BespokeJS libraries to build a web-based slide deck. Reveal.js creates some of the most beautiful and interactive decks using HTML. A user can easily insert nested slides. Even if the user is not aware of programming language then they can easily build a site with so much help online.

These presentations are touch optimized and work great with mobile devices, phones, and tablets. With all this JavaScript also provides different transition styles, themes, and slide backgrounds. It supports all CSS color formats. JavaScript also provides Bespoke.js plugin with a wide variety of features. These include responsive scaling, animated bullet lists, and syntax highlighting for code examples. It provides themes which are polished and not too flashy. The quickest way to start Bespoke.js is using a generator. It allows the user to set titles to your presentation and go through a set of questions to get the plugins required.

  1. Server Applications

Node JS is built on Chrome’s Javascript runtime for building fast and scalable network applications. It uses event-driven, lightweight and efficient applications which are to be distributed over the systems with the help of a server. Javascript is used to handle HTTP requests and generate contents. When a user is writing thick applications in JavaScript on the client then a user may even write the logic in JavaScript on the server so that cognitive leaps can be done from one language to the other.

  1. Web Servers

Using Node JS a web server can be created. The advantages of Node JS are that it is event-driven and would not wait for the response of the previous call. It moves to the next call and takes advantage of events to get notifications when a response is received for a previous call. The servers built on Node JS are very fast and do not use buffering and transfers chunks of data.

In addition to this, it is single threaded with event looping which is used in a non-blocking way. The HTTP module can help in creating a server by using the createServer() method. This method is executed whenever someone tries to access port 8080. In response to this, the HTTP server should display HTML and should be included in the HTTP header. It can be installed easily by typing ‘npm install -g http-server’ and it can be started by typing http-server command.

  1. Games

Not only websites but uses of JavaScript also helps in creating games for leisure. The combination of JavaScript and HTML5 makes JavaScript popular in games development as well. It provides the Ease JS library which provides simple solutions for working with rich graphics. It also has an API that is familiar to all flash developers with a hierarchical display list. A user can create a Stage and it will render the display list to its target canvas. Ease JS also has 2D bitmaps called Sprites which are drawn directly to render the target for transformations.

  1. Art

Using the HTML5 in JavaScript drawing graphics on a web page has become easier. All two and three-dimensional shapes can be easily drawn on a canvas and this has opened the browser as a new medium for all different digital art projects. A canvas has no border and no content and hence lets the user create his own art.

  1. Smartwatch Applications

Javascript being the most used language is because it is being used in all possible devices and applications. Uses of JavaScript provides a library called Pebble JS which is used in smartwatch applications. This framework works for applications that require the internet for its functioning. Using Pebbles allows a developer to create an application for a number of watches using JavaScript.

  1. Mobile Applications

The most important thing that can be done by the use of JavaScript is building applications without web contexts. Mobiles being mostly available in Apple and Android two different languages are used to build these. It should be possible to write once and use it on both platforms of these devices. PhoneGap is the framework which enables this. Also recently we have React Native that serves this purpose. It is the major player in cross-platform changes and deployments. Hence uses of Javascript can be used to deploy and download the respective applications across cross environments.

  1. Flying Robots

Several commercially available quadcopters, some outfitted with a simple OS, make it possible to install Node.js. This means that you can program a flying robot with JavaScript. JavaScript is the most accessible programming language on this planet, having many features. So, it’s good to see that it is creating such a wide range of applications.

3. Java

The Java programming language was developed by Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s. Although it is primarily used for Internet-based applications, Java is a simple, efficient, general-purpose language. Java was originally designed for embedded network applications running on multiple platforms. It is a portable, object-oriented, interpreted language.

Best Programming Languages To Learn in 2022

Java is extremely portable. The same Java application will run identically on any computer, regardless of hardware features or operating system, as long as it has a Java interpreter. Besides portability, another of Java’s key advantages is its set of security features which protect a PC running a Java program not only from problems caused by erroneous code but also from malicious programs (such as viruses). You can safely run a Java applet downloaded from the Internet, because Java’s security features prevent these types of applets from accessing a PC’s hard drive or network connections. An applet is typically a small Java program that is embedded within an HTML page.

Java can be considered both a compiled and an interpreted language because its source code is first compiled into a binary byte-code. This byte-code runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which is usually a software-based interpreter. The use of compiled byte-code allows the interpreter (the virtual machine) to be small and efficient (and nearly as fast as the CPU running native, compiled code). In addition, this byte-code gives Java its portability: it will run on any JVM that is correctly implemented, regardless of computer hardware or software configuration. Most Web browsers (such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Communicator) contain a JVM to run Java applets.

Compared to C++ (another object-oriented language), Java code runs a little slower (because of the JVM) but it is more portable and has much better security features. The virtual machine provides isolation between an untrusted Java program and the PC running the software. Java’s syntax is similar to C++ but the languages are quite different. For example, Java does not permit programmers to implement operator overloading while C++ does. In addition, Java is a dynamic language where you can safely modify a program while it is running, whereas C++ does not allow it.This is especially important for network applications that cannot afford any downtime. Also, all basic Java data types are predefined and not platform-dependent, whereas some data types can change with the platform used in C or C++ (such as the int type).Java programs are more highly structured than C++ equivalents. All functions (or Java methods) and executable statements in Java must reside within a class while C++ allows function definitions and lines of code to exist outside of classes (as in C-style programs). Global data and methods cannot reside outside of a class in Java, whereas C++ allows this. These restrictions, though cumbersome at times, help maintain the integrity and security of Java programs and forces them to be totally object-oriented.

Features of Java

The primary objective of Java programming language creation was to make it a portable, simple and secure programming language. Apart from this, there are also some excellent features which play an important role in the popularity of this language. The features of Java are also known as Java buzzwords.

A list of the most important features of the Java language is given below.

  1. Simple

Java is very easy to learn, and its syntax is simple, clean and easy to understand. According to Sun Microsystem, Java language is a simple programming language because:

  • Java syntax is based on C++ (so it is easier for programmers to learn it after C++).
  • Java has removed many complicated and rarely-used features, for example, explicit pointers, operator overloading, etc.
  • There is no need to remove unreferenced objects because there is an Automatic Garbage Collection in Java.

2. Object-Oriented

Java is an object-oriented programming language. Everything in Java is an object. Object-oriented means we organize our software as a combination of different types of objects that incorporate both data and behavior.

Object-oriented programming (OOPs) is a methodology that simplifies software development and maintenance by providing some rules.

Basic concepts of OOPs are:

  • Object
  • Class
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation
  1. Portable

Java is portable because it facilitates you to carry the Java bytecode to any platform. It doesn’t require any implementation.

  1. Platform Independent

Java is platform independent because it is different from other languages like C, C++, etc. which are compiled into platform specific machines while Java is a write once, run anywhere language. A platform is the hardware or software environment in which a program runs.

There are two types of platforms: software-based and hardware-based. Java provides a software-based platform.

The Java platform differs from most other platforms in the sense that it is a software-based platform that runs on top of other hardware-based platforms. It has two components:

  • Runtime Environment
  • API (Application Programming Interface)

Java code can be executed on multiple platforms, for example, Windows, Linux, Sun Solaris, Mac/OS, etc. Java code is compiled by the compiler and converted into bytecode. This bytecode is a platform-independent code because it can be run on multiple platforms, i.e., Write Once and Run Anywhere (WORA).

  1. Secured

Java is best known for its security. With Java, we can develop virus-free systems. Java is secured because:

  • No explicit pointer
  • Java programs run inside a virtual machine sandbox
  • Classloader: Classloader in Java is a part of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) which is used to load Java classes into the Java Virtual Machine dynamically. It adds security by separating the package for the classes of the local file system from those that are imported from network sources.
  • Bytecode Verifier: It checks the code fragments for illegal code that can violate access rights to objects.
  • Security Manager: It determines what resources a class can access such as reading and writing to the local disk.

Java provides these securities by default. Some security can also be provided by an application developer explicitly through SSL, JAAS, Cryptography, etc.

  1. Robust

The English meaning of Robust is strong. Java is robust because:

  • It uses strong memory management.
  • There is a lack of pointers that avoids security problems.
  • Java provides automatic garbage collection which runs on the Java Virtual Machine to get rid of objects which are not being used by a Java application anymore.
  • There are exception handling and the type checking mechanism in Java. All these points make Java robust.
  1. Architecture Neutral

Java is architecture neutral because there are no implementation dependent features, for example, the size of primitive types is fixed.

In C programming, int data type occupies 2 bytes of memory for 32-bit architecture and 4 bytes of memory for 64-bit architecture. However, it occupies 4 bytes of memory for both 32 and 64-bit architectures in Java.

  1. High Performance

Java is faster than other traditional interpreted programming languages because Java bytecode is “close” to native code. It is still a little bit slower than a compiled language (e.g., C++). Java is an interpreted language that is why it is slower than compiled languages, e.g., C, C++, etc.

  1. Multithreaded

A thread is like a separate program, executing concurrently. We can write Java programs that deal with many tasks at once by defining multiple threads. The main advantage of multi-threading is that it doesn’t occupy memory for each thread. It shares a common memory area. Threads are important for multimedia, Web applications, etc.

  1. Distributed

Java is distributed because it facilitates users to create distributed applications in Java. RMI and EJB are used for creating distributed applications. This feature of Java makes us able to access files by calling the methods from any machine on the internet.

  1. Dynamic

Java is a dynamic language. It supports the dynamic loading of classes. It means classes are loaded on demand. It also supports functions from its native languages, i.e., C and C++.

Java supports dynamic compilation and automatic memory management (garbage collection).

Applications of Java

Today Java programming language is one of the most extensively used languages that is fast emerging in the software world. We find many applications of Java language in almost all the fields, be it an application or web development, big data, Artificial Intelligence, mobile development, etc.

  1. Desktop GUI Applications

Java language provides a lot of features that help us to develop GUI applications. Java provides AWT, Swing API or Java Foundation Classes, or the latest JavaFX (from Java 8 onwards). These APIs/features help us develop advanced GUI applications including advanced tree-based or even 3D graphical applications.

Real-world desktop tools developed using Java:

  • Acrobat Reader
  • ThinkFree
  1. Web Applications

Java provides features for web development as well as Servlets, Struts, Spring, hibernate, JSPs, etc. that allow us to develop highly secure and easy to program software.

Real-world web tools using Java:

  • Amazon
  • BroadLeaf
  • Wayfair
  1. Mobile Applications

Java language provides a feature named J2ME which is a cross-platform framework to build mobile applications that can run across Java-supported smartphones and feature phones.

One of the popular mobile operating systems Android is developed using Java-based Android SDK.

Popular Java based mobile apps:

  • Netflix
  • Tinder
  • Google Earth
  • Uber
  1. Enterprise Applications

Java is the first choice for developing enterprise programs mainly because of its powerful features delivering high performance. Apart from performance, Java also makes applications more powerful, secure, and easily scalable.

Java language has the Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE) platform that comes with API and runtime environment features for scripting and running enterprise software, network tools, and web services.

According to Oracle, almost 97% of enterprise computers are running on Java. The higher performance and faster computing provided by Java have resulted in most enterprise applications to be developed in Java.

Real-time Enterprise Applications using Java:

  • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems
  • Customer Resource Management (CRM) systems
  1. Scientific Applications

Java has powerful security and robustness features that make it popular for developing scientific applications. Java also provides powerful mathematical calculations that give the same results on different platforms.

Most popular Java based scientific tools:

  • MatLab
  1. Web Servers and Application Servers

The entire Java ecosystem has numerous applications and web servers as of today. Among web servers, we have Apache Tomcat, Project Jigsaw, Rimfaxe Web Server (RWS), Jo! Etc. dominates the space.

Similarly application servers like WebSphere, JBoss, and WebLogic, etc. are dominating the industry commercially.

  1. Embedded Systems

Embedded systems are low-level systems that form a part of the larger electromechanical systems. These are tiny chips, processors, etc. and are also called integrated systems.

Java can produce robust tools that can handle application exceptions efficiently and is fast too as it is better for developing low-level programs.

Embedded systems applications using Java:

  • SIM cards 
  • Blu-ray disc player
  1. Server Apps in Finance Industry

Financial institutions like banks, investors need various software programs to run their day-to-day business like front and back office electronic trading systems, writing settlement and confirmation systems, data processing, etc.

Java is mostly used for these tools to write server-side applications that receive data from one server, process it, and send the processed data to the other servers or processes.

Most of the leading financial institutions like Barclays, Citi group, Goldman Sach, etc. use Java-based software tools for their business.

  1. Software Tools

Many software tools used for development are written in Java. For example, IDEs like Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, and Net beans are all written and developed in Java.

These are also the most popular desktop GUI based tools used today. Earlier swing and AWT were the features that are mostly used to develop Softwares but nowadays JavaFx has become more popular.

  1. Trading Applications

The popular trading application Murex, which is used in many banks for front to bank connectivity, is written in Java.

  1. J2ME Apps

Apart from iOS and android based mobile handsets, there are handsets from Nokia and Samsung that use J2ME. J2ME is also popular with products like Blu-ray, Cards, and Set-Top Boxes, etc. The popular application WhatsApp available on Nokia is available in J2ME.

  1. Big Data Technologies

Big data is the most popular and trending topic in the software industry today. Big data deals with analyzing and systematically extracting information from complex data sets.

An open framework that is associated with Big data is called Hadoop and is entirely written in Java. Features like automatic garbage collection, memory distribution, and stack provision system, Java gets an edge over other technologies. We can safely say that Java is the future of Big data.

Real-time Java based Big Data technologies:

  • Hadoop
  • Apache HBase
  • ElasticSearch
  • Accumulo

4. C++

C++ is an object-oriented computer language created by notable computer scientist Bjorne Stroustrop as part of the evolution of the C family of languages. It was developed as a cross-platform improvement of C to provide developers with a higher degree of control over memory and system resources.

Some call C++ “C with classes” because it introduces object-oriented programming principles, including the use of defined classes, to the C programming language framework. Over time, C++ has remained a very useful language not only in computer programming itself, but in teaching new programmers about how object-oriented programming works. However, it does not only support object-oriented, but also procedural and functional. Thanks to its high flexibility and scalability, C++ can be used to develop a broad range of software, applications, browsers, Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs), operating systems, and games.

Today C++ is still very appreciated for its notable portability which allows developers to create programs that can run on different operating systems or platforms very easily. Despite being a high-level language, since C++ is still close to C it can be used for low-level manipulation due to its close relation with machine language.

Features of C++

Following are the features of C++

  1. Object-Oriented Programming

Unlike C, a procedural language, C++ is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language. OOP helps modularize and maintain a program efficiently. It improves code clarity, code readability, troubleshooting and makes it easier to incorporate modifications without any significant restructuring. Moreover, OOP employs the use of objects to execute real-time problems based on five substantive concepts.

C++ has been ranked fourth by TIOBE Index, 2019. C++ features offer countless benefits that have been used widely and effectively. These include mobile app developments, game developments, software development (e.g., Adobe Premiere, Image Ready), web browser development (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox) and core banking applications (e.g., Infosys Finacle).

  • Data Abstraction: If we were to consider programming akin to the process of metamorphosis, data abstraction could be viewed as a cocoon. The objective is to hide irrelevant information from the end-user. The end-user does not have to concern themselves with internal changes in the data code or the method applied to obtain it. Only the required data essential for the program’s smooth functioning is privy to the user, barring any complex, intrinsic detail.
  • Data Encapsulation: If data abstraction is the objective, data encapsulation is the technique to achieve it. Using encapsulation, relevant data and its associated methods and functions are bundled together into an exclusive block.
  • Data Hiding: Although used synonymously with data encapsulation, there exists a fundamental difference. Data encapsulation is about shifting focus to essential aspects of the data. Contrarily, data hiding aims to secure a particular program code by protecting the data from unauthorized access.
  • Inheritance: Inheritance refers to creating a created child class (derived class), acquiring its parent class’s properties and functionalities (or base class). Inheritance guarantees the reusability of the code. In other words, if a code has to be improved, there is no requirement to rewrite the code from scratch. This helps minimize the program’s redundancy and facilitates the easy transfer/replication/copy of properties from one class to another.
  • Polymorphism: Etymologically, polymorphism can be deconstructed as ‘poly’ (meaning ‘many’) and ‘morphism’ (meaning, ‘forms’). Therefore, polymorphism facilitates flexible programming by displaying data in more than one form. This is usually implemented as either operator overloading or function overloading. Operators and functions can be used with as many objects as necessary. 
  1. Machine Independent

Here, machine independence (or portability) refers to the ability to transfer instructions from one operating environment to another. C++ employs the principle of WORA (Write Once, Run Anywhere). For instance, if you write a program in Microsoft Windows, and for some reason, have to make a switch to LINUX, your original program code will work in the same fashion. However, C++ is not platform-independent. This implies that the compiler will generate an OS-dependent .exe file, which cannot be run on different operating systems. 

  1. Simple

C++ is user-friendly. It provides a structured and comprehensive approach, with a syntax that closely mirrors C. In fact, C++ is popularly referred to as “C with classes”. C++ offers a bottom-up approach, such that any project development can be deconstructed into its respective logical units and parts. Additionally, it provides a rich set of in-built library functions and a variety of data types. 

  1. Intermediate Level Programming Language

As an intermediate-level language, it supports the features of both a low-level (machine-level) language and a high-level language. It is less cryptic and closely associated with a human-readable and human-comprehensible language, that is, English.  

  1. Compiler-Based

C++ has been designed to be a compiled language. This means that it is generally translated into machine language that the system can directly understand. The resultant generated program is thus highly efficient and relatively much faster than PYTHON or JAVA, which is interpreter-based.

  1. Dynamic Memory Allocation

Memory in C++ can be divided into two parts-stack and heap. The stack refers to the memory that is allocated for variables that are declared inside the function. Contrarily, the heap refers to unused memory that can be allocated dynamically. For instance, if you are unaware of the memory requirement to store information in a defined variable, the memory size can be manually determined during runtime. This is achieved using a special operator called the new operator, which returns the address of the space allocated. If not in need, you can use the delete operator to deallocate memory. 

  1. Integration and Extensibility

Many tools in C++, such as style and coding convention checkers, code optimizers, program visualizers and incremental compilers, rely on a continually updated database that contains semantic information extracted from source programs. Additionally, new programming techniques create a need for an extension. C++ has the potential to adopt and integrate newer features and knowledge acquisition easily.

Applications of C++

Following are some of the real-world applications of C++:

  1. Games: C++ is close to the hardware, can easily manipulate resources, provide procedural programming over CPU intensive functions and is fast. It is also able to override the complexities of 3D games and provides multilayer networking. All these benefits of C++ make it a primary choice to develop the gaming systems as well as game development suites.
  2. GUI Based Applications: C++ can be used to develop most of the GUI based and desktop applications easily as it has got the required features. Some of the applications, written in C++ are:
  • Adobe Systems: Most of the applications of the adobe systems including Illustrator, Photoshop, etc. are developed using C++.
  • Win Amp Media Player: Win amp media player from Microsoft is a popular software that has been catering to all our audio/video needs for decades now. This software is developed in C++.
  1. Database Software: C++ is also used in writing database management software. The two most popular databases MySQL and Postgres are written in C++.
  • MySQL Server: MySQL, one of the most popular database software that is used widely in many real-world applications is written in C++. This is the world’s most popular open-source database. This database is written in C++ and is used by most of the organizations.
  1. Operating Systems: The fact that C++ is a strongly typed and fast programming language makes it an ideal candidate for writing operating systems. In addition to this, C++ has a wide collection of system-level functions that also help in writing low-level programs.
  • Apple OS: Apple OS X has some of its parts written in C++. Similarly, some parts of the iPod are also written in C++.
  • Microsoft Windows OS: Most of the software from Microsoft is developed using C++ (flavors of Visual C++). Applications like Windows 95, ME, 98; XP, etc. are written in C++. Apart from this, the IDE Visual Studio, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Office are also written in C++.
  1. Browsers: Browsers are mostly used in C++ for rendering purposes. Rendering engines need to be faster in execution as most people do not like to wait for the web page to be loaded. With the fast performance of C++, most browsers have their rendering software written in C++.
  • Mozilla Firefox: Mozilla internet browser Firefox is an open-source project and is developed completely in C++.
  • Thunderbird: Just like the Firefox browser, the email client from Mozilla, Thunderbird is also developed in C++. This is also an open-source project.
  • Google Applications: Google applications like Google File System and Chrome browser are written in C++.
  1. Advanced Computation And Graphics: C++ is useful in developing an application that requires high-performance image processing, real-time physical simulations, and mobile sensor applications that need high performance and speed.
  • Alias System: Maya 3D software from Alias system is developed in C++ and is used for animation, virtual reality, 3D graphics, and environments.
  1. Banking Applications: As C++ aids in concurrency, it becomes the default choice for banking applications that require multi-threading, concurrency, and high performance. Infosys Finacle – is a popular core banking application that uses C++ as backend programming languages.
  2. Cloud/Distributed System: Cloud storage systems that are extensively used nowadays work close to the hardware. C++ becomes a default choice for implementing such systems as it is close to the hardware. C++ also provides multithreading support that can build concurrent applications and load tolerance. Bloomberg is a distributed RDBMS application that is used for accurately providing real-time financial information and news to investors.While Bloomberg’s RDBMS is written in C, its development environment and set of libraries are written in C++.
  3. Compilers: Compilers of various high-level programming languages are written either in C or C++. The reason is that both C and C++ are low-level languages that are close to hardware and are able to program and manipulate the underlying hardware resources.
  4. Embedded Systems: Various embedded systems like smartwatches, medical equipment systems use C++ to program as it is closer to the hardware level and can provide a lot of low-level function calls when compared to the other high-level programming languages.
  5. Enterprise Software: C++ is used in developing many enterprise software as well as advanced applications like flight simulation and radar processing.

Libraries: When we require very high-level mathematical computations, performance and speed become important. Hence most of the libraries use C++ as their core programming language. Most high-level machine language libraries use C++ as the backend. C++ is faster than most of the other programming languages and also supports multithreading with concurrency. Thus in Applications where speed along with concurrency is required, C++ is the most sought-after language for development. Apart from speed and performance, C++ is also close to hardware and we can easily manipulate hardware resources using C++ low-level functions. Thus C++ becomes the obvious choice in the applications that require low-level manipulations and hardware programming.

5. Swift

The Swift programming language is a general-purpose, open-source programming language designed by Apple. The language is influenced by Python, making it fast and intuitive. Swift is mainly used for native iOS and macOS development. Many popular apps including LinkedIn, Lyft, and WordPress are written in Swift. If you’re interested in iOS development, Swift is a great language to learn.

Swift is a multi-paradigm, general-purpose, open-source programming language for iPadOS, macOS, tvOS, watchOS, and iOS development. It was created by Apple in 2014 to give developers a powerful language to develop iOS apps. According to swift.org, the language was designed to be safe, fast, and expressive. It’s intended to be a replacement for C-based languages. The Swift language is constantly evolving, and the community continues to grow. Swift source code can be found on GitHub, making it easy for anyone to access the code.

Features of Swift

Following are the characteristic features of Swift:

  1. Powerful Generics

Generics allow you to write flexible, reusable functions and types that can work with any type.

  1. Native Error Handling

Swift provides support for throwing, catching, propagating, and manipulating errors at runtime.

  1. Structs and Classes

Swift allows you to define a structure or class in a single file, and the external interface is made available for other code to use.

  1. Protocol Extensions

Swift allows you to define behavior on protocols themselves, rather than in global functions or individual conformances.

  1. Memory Safety

Swift automatically manages memory and prevents unsafe behavior from happening in your code.

  1. Memory Management

With Automatic Reference Counting (ARC), Swift tracks and manages our app’s memory usage. This means we don’t need to worry about memory management ourselves.

  1. Flexible Enumerations

Swift enums support pattern matching and can have payloads.

  1. Package Manager

The Swift package manager is a cross-platform tool we can use to build, run, test, and package Swift libraries and executables.

  1. Debugging

Swift uses the LLDB debugger, which provides you with a REPL and debugger to enable integrated debugging, consistent formatting, failure recovery, and expression evaluation.

  1. Source and Binary Compatibility

The latest version of Swift has binary compatibility for apps. Swift libraries are included in every operating system release, so your apps will use the latest version of the library in the OS, and your code can run without recompiling.

  1. Tuples

Tuples allow us to create and share value groupings. We can use tuples to return multiple values as a single value.

  1. Closure Syntax

Swift has a lightweight closure syntax, which has optimizations to enable a clutter-free syntax and clear style.

Applications of Swift

Swift quickly bypassed Objective-C as the most popular Apple programming language. Let’s take a look at how it’s used.

  1. iPhone and iPad App Development: There are really only two languages you should choose from if you want to create an iPhone app that performs well and works seamlessly with iOS, Objective-C, and Swift. When it comes down to this choice, most developer’s choose Swift because of the modern features of the language that make programming easier. Plus, according to Apple, Swift is up to 2.6 times faster than Objective-C. With more people accessing the Internet through mobile phones, having a mobile presence is necessary for businesses. Swift is the most popular programming language for iPhone apps and a requirement for becoming an iOS developer.
  2. MacOS Desktop App Development: While apps for iOS may be the most popular use for Swift, people still use desktops and laptops to get work done. If you want to create a desktop app for a Mac, you can use one of the many other general-purpose programming languages or use Apple’s older language, Objective-C. But most Apple developers prefer Swift. And Swift just runs better on MacOS than other languages because it was designed to do so. For this reason, you will find that a large part of the apps in the App Store are written in Swift.
  3. App Watch Development: Over 100 million people own an Apple Watch. Over 35% of iPhone users in the US also own an Apple Watch. Watches have changed, and watch apps are in high demand. Watches are no longer just for telling time. For many people, they’re an irreplaceable way to keep information handy at all times, even when their phone is not close. Watches also have more features than phones because they are in direct contact with your body and can provide biometric data to measure your heart rate and activity. With Swift, you can build apps that run on the Apple Watch, which can interact with a user’s iPhone, collect biometric data, and more.
  4. App TV Development: Swift is also used to develop apps for tvOS, the operating system that runs Apple TV. With Swift, you can create visual experiences with 4K resolution, Dolby Vision, HDR10, and Dolby Atmos — and an Apple TV is not even needed to run these apps. The Apple TV app is built into iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Mac. Using the Apple TV app, you can stream the app to most smart TVs. Swift is also used for game development through tvOS. Picture in picture, multi user capabilities, and game controller support is built into tvOS, giving Swift developers the ability to create modern video games.

Other Uses of Swift: Swift use is not limited to developing apps for Apple products. It was designed to be a general-purpose language. Since the release of version 2.2 in 2016, Swift can run on the Linux operating system. Following the release of version 5.3 in 2020, Swift is available for the Windows operating system. It is now a cross-platform programming language that can be used on the top three operating systems. This means that Swift is being used to create web services and even web applications and, in the future, developers might find even more uses for it.

6. C#

C# (C Sharp) programs run on .NET, a virtual execution system called the common language runtime (CLR) and a set of class libraries. The CLR is the implementation by Microsoft of the common language infrastructure (CLI), an international standard. The CLI is the basis for creating execution and development environments in which languages and libraries work together seamlessly.

Source code written in C# is compiled into an intermediate language (IL) that conforms to the CLI specification. The IL code and resources, such as bitmaps and strings, are stored in an assembly, typically with an extension of .dll. An assembly contains a manifest that provides information about the assembly’s types, version, and culture.

When the C# program is executed, the assembly is loaded into the CLR. The CLR performs Just-In-Time (JIT) compilation to convert the IL code to native machine instructions. The CLR provides other services related to automatic garbage collection, exception handling, and resource management. Code that’s executed by the CLR is sometimes referred to as “managed code.” “Unmanaged code,” is compiled into native machine language that targets a specific platform.

Language interoperability is a key feature of .NET. IL code produced by the C# compiler conforms to the Common Type Specification (CTS). IL code generated from C# can interact with code that was generated from the .NET versions of F#, Visual Basic, C++. There are more than 20 other CTS-compliant languages. A single assembly may contain multiple modules written in different .NET languages. The types can reference each other as if they were written in the same language.

In addition to the run time services, .NET also includes extensive libraries. These libraries support many different workloads. They’re organized into namespaces that provide a wide variety of useful functionality. The libraries include everything from file input and output to string manipulation to XML parsing, to web application frameworks to Windows Forms controls. The typical C# application uses the .NET class library extensively to handle common “plumbing” chores.

Features of C#

C# provides a lot of features such as:

  1. Simple

C# is a simple language in the sense that it provides a structured approach (to break the problem into parts), a rich set of library functions, data types etc.

  1. Modern Programming Language

C# programming is based upon the current trend and it is very powerful and simple for building scalable, interoperable and robust applications.

  1. Object Oriented

C# is an object oriented programming language. OOPs makes development and maintenance easier whereas in Procedure-oriented programming language it is not easy to manage if code grows as project size grows.

  1. Type Safe

C# type safe code can only access the memory location that it has permission to execute. Therefore it improves the security of the program.

  1. Interoperability

Interoperability process enables the C# programs to do almost anything that a native C++ application can do.

  1. Scalable and Updateable

C# is an automatic scalable and updateable programming language. For updating our application we delete the old files and update them with new ones.

  1. Component Oriented

C# is a component oriented programming language. It is the predominant software development methodology used to develop more robust and highly scalable applications.

  1. Structured Programming Language

C# is a structured programming language in the sense that we can break the program into parts using functions. So, it is easy to understand and modify.

  1. Rich Library

C# provides a lot of inbuilt functions that makes the development fast.

  1. Fast Speed

The compilation and execution time of C# language is fast.

Applications of C#

Like other general-purpose programming languages, C# can be used to create a number of different programs and applications: mobile apps, desktop apps, cloud-based services, websites, enterprise software and games. Lots and lots of games. While C# is remarkably versatile, there are three areas in which it is most commonly used.

  1. Website Development

C# is often used to develop professional, dynamic websites on the .NET platform, or open-source software. So, even if you’re not a fan of the Microsoft architecture, you can still use C# to create a fully-functional website. Because this language is object-oriented, it is often utilized to develop websites that are incredibly efficient, easily scalable and a breeze to maintain.

  1. Windows Applications

C# was created by Microsoft for Microsoft, so it’s easy to see why it’s most popularly used for the development of Windows desktop applications. C# applications require the Windows .NET framework in order to function at their best, so the strongest use case for this language is developing applications and programs that are specific to the architecture of the Microsoft platform.

  1. Games

Do you have an interest in creating games? C# might just be one of the best programming languages for gaming. This language is heavily used to create fan-favorite games like Rimworld on the Unity Game Engine.

Just in case you weren’t already aware, Unity is by far the most popular game engine available, on which more than a third of the industry’s best and most commonly-played games were built. C# integrates seamlessly with the Unity engine and can be used on virtually any modern mobile device or console thanks to cross-platform tech like Xamarin.

7. Kotlin

Kotlin is a statically typed, general-purpose programming language with type inference. It is widely used to develop Android applications. Kotlin is designed to interoperate fully with Java, and the JVM version of its standard library depends on the Java Class Library, but type inference allows its syntax to be more concise. Kotlin mainly targets the JVM but also compiles to JavaScript or native code. Kotlin is sponsored by JetBrains and Google, through the Kotlin Foundation.

Features of Kotlin

The reason for Kotlin’s popularity is because of the unique features that it possesses. Let’s now get into the details of the various features.

  1. Concise

Kotlin is more concise than Java and you would need to write approximately 40% fewer lines of code when compared to Java.

  1. Interoperability

Kotlin programming language is highly interoperable with Java. You will never face any difficulty using Kotlin in a Java project.

  1. Feature-Rich

Kotlin provides several advanced features such as Operator overloading, Lambda expressions, String templates, etc.

  1. Easy

Kotlin is an easy to learn programming language. If you come from a Java background, you would find it easy to learn Kotlin.

  1. Less Error-Prone

Kotlin is a statically-typed programming language, which makes you able to catch errors at compile-time, as Statically typed programming languages do type checking at compile-time.

Applications of Kotlin

Kotlin finds application in following areas:

  1. Native App Development

Kotlin/Native is a technology for compiling Kotlin code to native binaries which can run without a virtual machine. Kotlin/Native includes an LLVM-based backend for the Kotlin compiler and a native implementation of the Kotlin standard library.

Kotlin/Native is primarily designed to allow compilation for platforms on which virtual machines are not desirable or possible, such as embedded devices or iOS. It is ideal for situations when a developer needs to produce a self-contained program that does not require an additional runtime or virtual machine.

  1. Desktop App Development

Technically any program you can write in Java can also be written in Kotlin. It’s even better when using frameworks that were specially tailored for Kotlin. More specifically, Kotlin/JVM compiles to Java bytecode, so you can use Kotlin to target any environment running a JVM that interprets this bytecode (provided the target bytecode version is at most that of the JVM, like in Java).

  1. Multi-Platform Programming

Support for multiplatform programming is one of Kotlin’s key benefits. It reduces time spent writing and maintaining the same code for different platforms while retaining the flexibility and benefits of native programming.

  1. Server-Side Development

Kotlin is a great fit for developing server-side applications. It allows you to write concise and expressive code while maintaining full compatibility with existing Java-based technology stacks, all with a smooth learning curve.

  1. Data Science App Development

From building data pipelines to productionizing machine learning models, Kotlin can be a great choice for working with data:

  • Kotlin is concise, readable, and easy to learn.
  • Static typing and null safety help create reliable, maintainable code that is easy to troubleshoot.
  • Being a JVM language, Kotlin gives you great performance and an ability to leverage an entire ecosystem of tried and true Java libraries.

8. Go

Go, often called GoLang, was designed to respond to heated critiques against other languages used at Google. In fact, Go’s designers have a noted animosity towards C++ with a long list of simplifications they developed through Go. 

Most Go developers come from Python and Ruby, not C++. To add, many elements of Go are inspired by other languages. For example, Go borrows static typing and run-time efficiency from C and readability and usability from Python and JavaScript.

All the features of Go contribute to its primary benefit – stability. For example, static typing promotes flexibility by not requiring the explicit initialization of variables. This plays into the prevention of runtime errors, improving runtime efficiency. 

Syntactically similar to C, you can also find memory safety, garbage collection, structural typing, and concurrency in Go. 

Structural typing extends more flexibility towards Go users by determining class via structure rather than declarations. Garbage collection encourages memory safety by cleaning up unused memory.

Concurrency signifies that multiple processes can happen at the same time, meaning programming processes execute with exceptional speed.   

Some other perks of Go include its high-performance networking and multi-processing. This also allows for overall faster computing. And of course, these features stand alongside code that is made to be easy to use and easy to read.

Features of Go

Following are the main features of Go:

  1. Open-Source

The foremost characteristic of the Golang programming language is that it is open-source. That means, anyone can download and experiment with the code to bring better codes into picture and fix related bugs.

  1. Static Typing

Go is a statically typed programming language and works with a mechanism that makes it possible to compile code accurately while taking care of type conversions and compatibility level. This gives developers freedom from challenges associated with dynamically typed languages.

  1. Concurrency Support

One of the prime characteristics of go programming language is its concurrency support. Golang, unlike other programming languages, offers easier and trackable concurrency options. This makes it easier for app developers to complete requests at a faster pace, free up allocated resources and network earlier, and much more.

  1. Powerful Standard Library and Tool Set

This programming language also comes loaded with a robust standard library. These libraries offer ample components that give developers an escape from turning towards third party packages anymore.

Also, it offers a wider range of tools that makes the development process efficient. This includes:

  • Gofmt: It automatically formats your Go code, which eventually brings a major impact on readability.
  • Gorun: This tool is used to add a ‘bang line’ in the source code to run it, or run a similar code file explicitly. It is often used by Go developers when experimenting with codes written in Python.
  • Goget: The Goget tool downloads libraries from GitHub and saves them to your GoPath so that you can easily import the libraries in your app project.
  • Godoc: The tool parses Go source code, including comments and creates documentation in HTML or plain text format. The documentation made is tightly coupled with codes it documents and can be easily navigated with one click.
  1. Testing Capabilities

Go language also offers an opportunity to write unit tests along with writing the app codes. Besides, it avails support to understand code coverage, benchmark tests, and write example codes to create your own code documentation.

  1. Garbage Collection

The programming language also offers exceptional power of garbage collection. Meaning, developers need not worry about freeing up pointers or the situation associated with dangling pointers.

Applications of Go

The 7 biggest companies using Golang are:

  • Google: Golang was designed by Google engineers and is often used there for internal projects. Google Chrome and Google Earth were created in this way. It is also used in YouTube and Google App Engine.
  • Uber: One of the biggest companies using Golang is Uber. It is used there for the geofence service, which serves the user’s location and product availability. Geofence makes it possible to precisely define the area with special requirements (e.g. taking into account places such as airports) and to implement dynamic prices.
  • Twitch: In Twitch, Go is used for the most-loaded systems. It is appreciated for its simplicity, security, efficiency and readability, which means that it perfectly manages problems encountered when displaying live video and simultaneous chats of a large number of users.
  • Dailymotion: Dailymotion is a video streaming website. Thanks to Golang, among others, automation of APIs has been improved. This language makes it possible to carry out a large number of automation tests, which would otherwise cause huge loads. All because of Golang simplicity and its performance, as well as the possibility of static type checking.
  • SendGrid: SendGrid is a cloud based email service specializing in the delivery of transactional messages and one of the biggest companies using Golang. It is mainly responsible for sending purchase confirmations, sending offers, processing incoming messages and forwarding customer inquiries. The company uses Go as the primary programming language. The advantages of this language allow it to efficiently process over 500 million messages a day.
  • Dropbox: Dropbox, one of the leaders in cloud computing services constitutes another great example of a major company using Golang. It needs this language to scale its systems in a more efficient way. 
  • SoundCloud: For SoundCloud, the ability to perform static analysis in real time was also important, which was possible thanks to static typing and fast compilation enabled by Go.

9. Ruby

Ruby was invented by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto, a Japanese computer programmer, in the mid-1990s. Matsumoto was an expert on multiple programming languages at the time, including Perl, Eiffel, Smalltalk, Lisp, and Ada. When creating Ruby, he tried to combine what he thought were the best elements of each of these languages.

Ruby was publicly released in 1995, but it didn’t quite achieve mass acceptance until much later in 2006. Since then, Ruby has attracted a massive global user base, with programmers from many different industries using it to make some of the world’s best applications. There are even large groups of devoted coders that meet in major cities for Ruby-related conferences.

Best of all, Ruby is completely free—not only free to use but open source. It can be copied, modified, and distributed at will.

The Ruby on Rails web development framework was released in 2005, and in many ways, it became Ruby’s claim to fame. Ruby on Rails revolutionized how web development was done, making it possible to create complex and user-friendly web applications in far less time than before.

Ruby on Rails became an instant hit with time-strapped startup entrepreneurs, as it allowed small teams to build large applications quickly. Some of the major sites that use Ruby on Rails today include Shopify, Square, Instacart, Twitch, SoundCloud, GitHub, Kickstarter, Ask.fm, and even Hulu.

Ruby is a highly flexible programming language. Developers coding in Ruby can make changes to the way the language itself works. It’s an interpreted language like Python, rather than a compiled one like C or C++.

But unlike Python, which focuses on a single, unambiguous solution for every problem, Ruby projects try to take multiple different approaches to problem-solving. As you might have guessed, there are benefits and disadvantages to both methods, depending on your project.

One feature that makes Ruby so user-friendly is that it hides a lot of details from the programmer. This makes programming with Ruby much easier than using other mainstream languages with more complexity, such as C and C++. However, it also means that finding bugs in the code can be more difficult.

Conveniently, code you write in Ruby will run on any of the major operating systems without having to be ported, including Windows, macOS, and Linux.

Features of Ruby

Ruby has many features. Some of them are as under:

  1. Object-Oriented

Ruby is a purely object oriented programming language. Each and every value is an object. Every object has a class and every class has a super class. Every code has its own properties and actions. Ruby is influenced by the Smalltalk language. Rules applying to objects apply to the entire Ruby.

  1. Flexibility

Ruby is a flexible language as you can easily remove, redefine or add existing parts to it. It allows its users to freely alter its parts as they wish.

  1. Mixins

Ruby has a feature of single inheritance only. Ruby has classes as well as modules. A module has methods but no instances. Instead, a module can be mixed into a class, which adds the method of that module to the class. It is similar to inheritance but much more flexible.

  1. Visual Appearance

Ruby generally prefers English keywords and some punctuation is used to decorate Ruby. It doesn’t need variable declaration.

  1. Dynamic Typing and Duck Typing

Ruby is a dynamic programming language. Ruby programs are not compiled. All class, module and method definitions are built by the code when it runs.

Ruby variables are loosely typed language, which means any variable can hold any type of object. When a method is called on an object, Ruby only looks up at the name irrespective of the type of object. This is duck typing. It allows you to make classes that pretend to be other classes.

  1. Exception Handling

In Ruby, constants are not really constant. If an already initialized constant will be modified in a script, it will simply trigger a warning but will not halt your program.

  1. Garbage Collection

Ruby defines some naming conventions for its variable, method, constant and class.

  • Constant: Starts with a capital letter.
  • Global variable: Starts with a dollar sign ($).
  • Instance variable: Starts with a (@) sign.
  • Class variable: Starts with a (@@) sign.
  • Method name: Allowed to start with a capital letter.
  1. Statement Delimiters

Multiple statements in a single line must contain semicolons in between but not at the end of a line.

  1. Keyword Arguments

Like Python, Ruby methods can also be defined using keyword arguments.

  1. Method Names

Methods are allowed to end with a question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!). By convention, methods that answer questions end with a question mark and methods that indicate that method can change the state of the object end with an exclamation mark.

  1. Singleton Methods

Ruby singleton methods are per-object methods. They are only available on the object you defined it on.

  1. Missing Method

If a method is lost, Ruby calls the method_missing method with the name of the lost method.

  1. Case Sensitive

Ruby is a case-sensitive language. Lowercase letters and uppercase letters are different.

Applications of Ruby

Ruby is most used for building web applications. However, it is a general-purpose language similar to Python, so it has many other applications like data analysis, prototyping, and proof of concepts. 

  1. Web Development

Web development is one of Ruby’s claims to fame because of the popular web development framework Ruby on Rails. Ruby on Rails was first released in 2005, and it changed how web development was done. Before frameworks like Ruby on Rails, developers had to spend a lot more time writing code to create a web application.

Ruby on Rails gives web developers everything they need to build a web application. Rails uses conventions that define the structure of every Rails app, so developers can spend less time configuring their projects. It has code generators that will generate parts of your application with a simple command, so developers write less code.

The rapid development that Ruby on Rails makes possible also made it a popular choice for startups because it allowed a small team of developers to build large applications quickly. Some sites you may have heard of that use Ruby on Rails include Github, Shopify, Kickstarter, Twitch, Instacart, Zendesk, SoundCloud, Ask.fm, Hulu, and Square.

  1. Static Site Generation

Most websites use server-side code that generates HTML and serves it to your browser when you visit a page. There is no actual HTML file located at the URL you visited.

A static site generator still uses code, but it generates all the pages for a website at one time. Those pages are then deployed to a server, and when you visit a URL, you are served a static HTML file. Web sites built with static site generators are fast, efficient, secure, and easy to deploy. They’re also useful for sites where content doesn’t change frequently.

Written in Ruby, Jekyll was the first static site generator and is still the most popular. Github’s founder, Tom Preston-Werner, created Jekyll and made it the default way to publish content on Github. The popularity of Jekyll took off after that, and many other programmers followed with their own static site generators in a multitude of programming languages.

  1. DevOps and Automation

Ruby is widely used for DevOps, automation, and website deployment. Heroku is a popular web app deployment platform that makes launching apps quick and easy, even for users who are unfamiliar with DevOps. Startups flocked to Heroku when it was first introduced because it allowed small teams to test, deploy, and stage their applications without a dedicated DevOps engineer. Now Heroku supports multiple languages, but originally it only supported Ruby.

Vagrant is a tool for managing virtual machines from the command line. It allows developers to code and run projects developed for a specific operating system run on any operating system. For example, a developer can build services made to run on Linux on their Mac or Windows laptop and be sure that it will run correctly when deployed. Vagrant is written in Ruby, and Vagrant development environments must be configured with Ruby.

Chef and Puppet are tools that DevOps engineers use to automate and manage the configuration of web applications and servers. Using Chef or Puppet, engineers can define application environments with a simple configuration file and then use that configuration to launch instances of the application without any manual steps on any platform.

  1. Web Servers

You can also use Ruby to build web servers. Passenger, Unicorn, and Puma are web servers written in Ruby. They process raw incoming HTTP requests, send them to correct backend web applications, and then handle the HTTP response sent back from the application. Ruby web application servers work hand in hand with web development frameworks written in Ruby.

  1. Data Processing

Ruby is also a great language for data processing, cleaning, and filtering. Ruby’s built-in map, reduce, and select functions are powerful tools used to solve many data processing problems.

  1. Web Scraping and Crawling

Ruby has a wide variety of packages available that make extracting data from web pages a breeze. Ruby libraries like Vessel are used to crawl and download web pages. Nokogiri, another popular Ruby library, is then used to parse the HTML from the pages that have been crawled to extract specific parts of the page in a structured way to make it usable for data analysis.

10. R

Many of the computer programming languages you learn about are general-purpose. You can use them to build all types of applications. However, other programming languages are designed for a specific task and become well-known because they do that task more efficiently or make programming the solution easier. R is one of these specialized programming languages.

R is a programming language created by statisticians for statistics, specifically for working with data. It is a language for statistical computing and data visualizations used widely by business analysts, data analysts, data scientists, and scientists. Let’s look at more details of the R language to see what makes it different.

R is unique in that it is not general-purpose. It does not compromise by trying to do a lot of things. It does a few things very well, mainly statistical analysis and data visualization. While you can find data analysis and machine learning libraries for languages like Python, R has many statistical functionalities built into its core. No third-party libraries are needed for much of the core data analysis you can do with the language.

But even with this specific use case, it is used in every industry you can think of because a modern business runs on data. Using past data, data scientists and data analysts can determine the health of a business and give business leaders actionable insights into the future of their company.

Just because R is specifically used for statistical analysis and data visualization doesn’t mean its use is limited. On the contrary, it is a widely-used programming language. Academics, scientists, and researchers use it to analyze the results of experiments. In addition, businesses of all sizes and in every industry use it to extract insights from the increasing amount of daily data they generate.

Features of R

There are many things R can do for data scientists and analysts. These key features are what set R apart from the crowd of statistical languages:

  1. Open-Source

R is an open-source software environment. It is free of cost and can be adjusted and adapted according to the user’s and the project’s requirements. You can make improvements and add packages for additional functionalities. R is freely available. You can learn how to install R, Download and start practicing it.

  1. Strong Graphical Capabilities

R can produce static graphics with production quality visualizations and has extended libraries providing interactive graphic capabilities. This makes data visualization and data representation very easy. From concise charts to elaborate and interactive flow diagrams, all are well within R’s repertoire. Look at the attractive graphical visualizations in R.

  1. Highly Active Community

R has an open-source library which is supported by its growing number of users. The R environment is continuously growing. This growth is due to its large user-base.

  1. A Wide Selection of Packages

CRAN or Comprehensive R Archive Network houses more than 10,000 different packages and extensions that help solve all sorts of problems in data science. High-quality interactive graphics, web application development, quantitative analysis or machine learning procedures, there is a package for every scenario available. R contains a sea of packages for all the forms of disciplines like astronomy, biology, etc. While R was originally used for academic purposes, it is now being used in industries as well.

  1. Comprehensive Environment

R has a very comprehensive development environment meaning it helps in statistical computing as well as software development. R is an object-oriented programming language. It also has a robust package called Rshiny which can be used to produce full-fledged web apps. Combined with data analysis and data visualization, R can be used for highly interactive online data-driven storytelling.

  1. Complex Statistical Calculations

R can be used to perform simple and complex mathematical and statistical calculations on data objects of a wide variety. It can also perform such operations on large data sets.

  1. Distributed Computing

In distributed computing, tasks are split between multiple processing nodes to reduce processing time and increase efficiency. R has packages like ddR and multiDplyr that enable it to use distributed computing to process large data sets.

  1. Running Code Without Compiler

R is an interpreted language which means that it does not need a compiler to make a program from the code. R directly interprets provided code into lower-level calls and pre-compiled code.

  1. Interfacing With Databases

R contains several packages that enable it to interact with databases like Roracle, Open Database Connectivity Protocol, RmySQL, etc.

  1. Data Variety

R can handle a variety of structured and unstructured data. It also provides various data modeling and data operation facilities due to its interaction with databases.

  1. Machine Learning

R can be used for machine learning as well. The best use of R when it comes to machine learning is in case of exploration or when building one-off models.

  1. Data Wrangling

Data wrangling is the process of cleaning complex and inconsistent data sets to enable convenient computation and further analysis. This is a very time taking process. R with its extensive library of tools can be used for database manipulation and wrangling.

  1. Cross-Platform Support

R is machine-independent. It supports cross-platform operation. Therefore, it can be used on many different operating systems.

  1. Compatible With Other Programming Languages

While most of its functions are written in R itself, C, C++ or FORTRAN can be used for computationally heavy tasks. Java, .NET, Python, C, C++, and FORTRAN can also be used to manipulate objects directly.

  1. Data Handling and Storage

R is integrated with all the formats of data storage due to which data handling becomes easy.

  1. Vector Arithmetic

Vectors are the most basic data structure in R, and most other data structures are derived from vectors. R uses vectors and vector arithmetic and does not need a lot of looping to process a large set of values. This makes R much more efficient.

  1. Compatibility With Other Data Processing Technologies

R can be easily paired with other data processing and distributed computing technologies like Hadoop and Spark. It is possible to remotely use a Spark cluster to process large datasets using R. R and Hadoop can be paired as well to combine Hadoop’s large scale data processing and distributing computing capabilities with R’s statistical computing power.

Applications of R

R is one of the latest cutting-edge tools. Today, millions of analysts, researchers, and brands such as Facebook, Google, Bing, Accenture, Wipro are using R to solve complex issues. The applications of R are not limited to just one sector, we can see the use of R in banking, e-commerce, finance, and many more sectors. This article will make you familiar with the real-life analogies of the R programming language.

Some of the important applications of R Programming Language in the domain of Data Science are:

  1. Finance

Data Science is most widely used in the financial industry. R is the most popular tool for this role. This is because R provides an advanced statistical suite that is able to carry out all the necessary financial tasks.

With the help of R, financial institutions are able to perform downside risk measurement, adjust risk performance and utilize visualizations like candlestick charts, density plots, drawdown plots, etc.

R also provides tools for moving averages, autoregression and time-series analysis which forms the crux of financial applications. R is being widely used for credit risk analysis at firms like ANZ and portfolio management.

Finance industries are also leveraging the time-series statistical processes of R, to model the movement of their stock-market and predict the prices of shares. R also provides facilities for financial data mining through its packages like quantmod, pdfetch, TFX, pwt, etc. R makes it easy for you to extract data from online assets. With the help of RShiny, you can also demonstrate your financial products through vivid and engaging visualizations.

  1. Banking

Just like financial institutions, banking industries make use of R for credit risk modeling and other forms of risk analytics.

Banks make heavy usage of the Mortgage Haircut Model that allows them to take over the property in case of loan defaults. Mortgage Haircut Modelling involves sales price distribution, the volatility of the sales price and the calculation of expected shortfall. For these purposes, R is often used alongside proprietary tools like SAS.

R is also used in conjunction with Hadoop to facilitate the analysis of customer quality, customer segmentation, and retention.

Bank of America makes use of R for financial reporting. With the help of R, the data scientists at BOA are able to analyze financial losses and make use of R’s visualization tools.

  1. Healthcare

Genetics, Bioinformatics, Drug Discovery, Epidemiology are some of the fields in healthcare that make heavy usage of R. With the help of R, these companies are able to crunch data and process information, providing an essential backdrop for further analysis and data processing.

For more advanced processing like drug discovery, R is most widely used for performing pre-clinical trials and analyzing the drug-safety data. It also provides a suite for performing exploratory data analysis and vivid visualization tools to its users.

R is also popular for its Bioconductor package that provides various functionalities for analyzing the genomic data. R is also used for statistical modeling in the field of epidemiology, where data scientists analyze and predict the spread of diseases.

  1. Social Media

For many beginners in Data Science and R, social media is a data playground. Sentiment Analysis and other forms of social media data mining are some of the important statistical tools that are used with R.

Social Media is also a challenging field for Data Science because the data prevalent on social media websites is mostly unstructured in nature. R is used for social media analytics, for segmenting potential customers and targeting them for selling your products.

Furthermore, mining user sentiment is another popular category in social media analytics. With the help of R, companies are able to model statistical tools that analyze user sentiments, allowing them to improve their experiences.

SocialMediaMineR is a popular R package that can take multiple URLs and churn the popularity of their reach on social media. Furthermore, companies use R to analyze the social media market and generate leads for the user.

  1. E-Commerce

The e-commerce industry is one of the most important sectors that utilize Data Science. R is one of the standard tools that is being used in e-commerce.

Since these internet-based companies have to deal with various forms of data, structured and unstructured, as well as from varying data sources like spreadsheets and databases (SQL & NoSQL), R proves to be an effective choice for these industries.

E-commerce companies use R for analyzing cross-selling products to their customers. In cross-selling, we suggest additional products to the customer that complements their original purchase. These types of suggestions and recommendations are best analyzed with the help of R.

Various statistical procedures like linear modeling are necessary to analyze the purchases made by the customers as well as in predicting product sales. Furthermore, companies use R for carrying out A/B testing analysis across the pages of their products.

  1. Manufacturing

Manufacturing companies like Ford, Modelez, and John Deere use R to analyze customer sentiment. This helps them optimize their product according to trending consumer interests and also to match their production volume to varying market demand. They also use R to minimize their production costs and maximize profits.

11. PHP

PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is known as a general-purpose scripting language that can be used to develop dynamic and interactive websites. It was among the first server-side languages that could be embedded into HTML, making it easier to add functionality to web pages without needing to call external files for data.

  • PHP is a recursive acronym for “PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor”.
  • PHP is a server side scripting language that is embedded in HTML. It is used to manage dynamic content, databases, session tracking, and even build entire e-commerce sites.
  • It is integrated with a number of popular databases, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, Sybase, Informix, and Microsoft SQL Server.
  • PHP is pleasingly zippy in its execution, especially when compiled as an Apache module on the Unix side. The MySQL server, once started, executes even very complex queries with huge result sets in record-setting time.
  • PHP supports a large number of major protocols such as POP3, IMAP, and LDAP. PHP4 added support for Java and distributed object architectures (COM and CORBA), making n-tier development a possibility for the first time.
  • PHP is forgiving: PHP language tries to be as forgiving as possible.
  • PHP Syntax is C-Like.

PHP is widely used for the following:

  • PHP performs system functions, i.e. from files on a system it can create, open, read, write, and close them.
  • PHP can handle forms, i.e. gather data from files, save data to a file, through email you can send data, return data to the user.
  • You add, delete, modify elements within your database through PHP.
  • Access cookies variables and set cookies.
  • Using PHP, you can restrict users to access some pages of your website.
  • It can encrypt data

12. SQL

SQL(Structured Query Language)  is a computer language that gives orders or instructions to the database. If you want to create a database, store data, update/delete, there are different commands known as SQL. All RDBMS use SQL as standard database language.

Take the example of Facebook, while making a Facebook account you see a registration form that you have to fill so that after clicking on the submit button all the information filled by you has been stored in the database.

How will this work? So, when you click on the submit button, then in the backend SQL has already performed its work, it executes a command which instructs the database to store the data. Consequently, communication between registration form and database is in the language of SQL. 

Despite the fact that SQL is an ANSI/ISO standard, there are various variants of the SQL language. Nonetheless, to be consistent with the ANSI standard, they all help, at any rate, the significant orders, (for example, SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE, INSERT, WHERE) along these lines.

Let’s discuss the uses of SQL and through this what are the operations performed related to the database. We can use it in;

  • Creating a new database with SQL and inserting new data in the database,
  • Modifying or update previous data and retrieving data from the database,
  • Deleting data and creating a new table in one database or even drop the table,
  • Setting permissions for table, procedures and views, and creating function, views and storing procedures

Hence, in a database management system, all works are accomplished with the assistance of SQL.

Here, we will see some applications of SQL that render it so valuable in a data-driven world where governing massive databases is the criterion of the day. 

  •  SQL is used as a Data Definition Language (DDL) which means you can autonomously make a database, characterize its structure, use it and afterwards dispose of it when you are finished with it. It is additionally conveyed as a Data Control Language (DCL) which determines how you can ensure your information base against debasement and misuse.
  • SQL is used as a Data Manipulation Language (DML) which implies you can use it for keeping up a previously existing database. Hence, it is an incredible language for entering information, changing information, and separating information with respect to a database.
  • It is broadly used as a Client or Server language to interface the front-end with the back-end consequently supporting the customer or worker architecture. Likewise, it can be used in the three-level design of a customer, an application worker, and a database which characterizes the Internet architecture.


Looking into the future, we can easily see programming growing into something the average user can do, using a drag and drop interface, and just a little bit of reasoning and logic. The technology to this already exists, and there are many projects in their infancy that aim to provide such an interface. The one most about, is Google’s App Inventor, which lets you create an Android App just by dragging and dropping UI elements, then using a graph based logic map to create functionality.

The apps they create are not very unique or powerful, but these are the first steps. While this type of programming takes over anytime in the near future, the need for programmers well with Computer Science degrees to write software will still exist. But that day is no so far when the average consumer will be a programmer. Then only the limits of the imagination of the masses are our blockades.

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